Med Terms 12

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Med Terms 12
2013-07-02 22:28:38
medical terminology sensory

Sensory Systems
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  1. Sensory Systems
    • The eye and ear are sense organs.
    • Stimulus→applied to Receptor cells in ear and eye→excite Nerve fibers→that carry impulses to Brain, where nerve impulses are translated into sound sensations and visual images
  2. Eyes
    • Provide vision in conjunction with the brain to translate light rays into visual images
    • Each eye is located in an orbit
    • The eyes are protected by the eyelids
    • The eyes are lubricated by fluids produced by lacrimal glands
  3. Pupil
    Light rays enter the dark opening of the eye

  4. Iris
    The pupil is surrounded by the iris; the colored portion of the eye
  5. Conjunctiva
    A membrane that covers the inner surfaces of the eyelids and the white of the eye
  6. Cornea
    Light passes through the cornea, before entering the eye through the pupil
  7. Choroid
    Contain blood vessels and provides nutrients to the eye
  8. Ciliary body
    • Secretes aqueous humor which maintains the shape of the front of the eye and provides nourishment
    • Muscles in the ciliary body adjust the shape and thickness of the lens
  9. Vitreous chamber
    • Filled with vitreous humor, which maintains the shape of the eyeball
    • Trauma which results in the escape of vitreous humor may result in damage to the eye (ie., blindness, retinal damage)
  10. Retina
    The nerve layer of the eye where light is focused on receptor cells called rods and cones
  11. Rods
    Receptor cell responsible for peripheral vision
  12. Cones
    Receptor cell responsible for color and central vision
  13. Visual Cerebral Cortex
    Brain damage to nerve cells in right visual cerebral cortex cause loss of vision in left visual cerebral hemisphere and vice versa
  14. Lacrimal glands
    Secrete tears
  15. Lacrimal ducts
    Channels that carry tears to the eye
  16. Nasolacrimal ducts
    • Ducts that carry tears from the lacrimal glands to the nose
    • Right lacrimal gland and duct
  17. Macular Degeneration
    • Deterioration of the macula (the central part of the retina), causing impaired central vision
    • Most commonly related to advancing age
  18. Glaucoma
    • Abnormal condition in which there is increased intraocular pressure
    • Results in damage to retina and optic nerve with loss of vision
    • Cause: failure of aqueous humor to drain from eye to bloodstream
  19. Hordeolum (stye or sty)
    Staphylococcal infection of sebaceous gland in the eyelid
  20. Strabismus
    • Abnormal deviation of the eye
    • Esotropia
    • Exotropia
    • Hypertropia
    • Hypotropia
  21. Visual Acuity Test
    • Testing for the sharpness (clarity) of distant vision, usually with a Snellen chart
    • Normal visual acuity is 20/20
  22. Ophthalmoscopy
    Use of the ophthalmoscope to view the interior of the eye
  23. ophthalmoscope
    Instrument used for examining the interior of the eye through the pupil
  24. Tonometry
    • Use of the tonometer to measure intraocular pressure within the eye
    • Done to diagnose glaucoma
  25. Fluorescein Angiography
    • Visualization and photographic recording of the flow of an orange fluorescent dye through the blood vessels of the eye
    • Provides information about blood flow in retina such as:
    • Vascular changes in the diabetic and hypertensive retinopathy, lesions in the macular area of the retina
  26. Laser-Assisted in Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK)
    • Procedure that uses a laser to create a corneal flap and reshape the corneal tissue
    • Used to correct vision problems such as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism
  27. Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK)
    Procedure using a laser to reshape the cornea to correct vision
  28. Cataract extraction
    Surgical removal of a cataract
  29. Intraocular lens (IOL) implant
    Implantation of an artificial lens to replace a defective natural lens
  30. Phacoemulsification
    Use of ultrasound to shatter and break up a cataract, followed by aspiration and removal
  31. Retinal photocoagulation
    Repair of a retinal detachment or tear by using a laser beam to coagulate the tissues to allow a seal to form
  32. Scleral Buckling
    Repair of a retinal detachment by attaching a band (or buckle) around the sclera to keep the retina from pulling away
  33. Detached retina
    • Separation of the retina from the choroid in the back of the eye
    • Can be caused by injury, tumor, or hemorrhage
    • Treatment: Photocoagulation and cryotherapy can be used for small tears
    • Scleral buckle for larger detachments
  34. Aque/o
  35. Blephar/o, palpebr/o
  36. Conjunctiv/o
  37. Cor/o
  38. Corne/o, kerat/o
  39. Cry/o
  40. Dacry/o
    Tears, tear ducts
  41. Ir/o, Irid/o
  42. Kerat/o
  43. Lacrim/o
  44. Ocul/o, Ophthalm/o
  45. Opt/o, Optic/o
    Vision, eye
  46. Phac/o, Phak/o
    Lens of the ey
  47. Presby/o
    Old age
  48. Pupill/o
  49. Retin/o
  50. Scler/o
  51. Vitre/o
  52. Ambly/o
    Dull, dim
  53. Dipl/o
  54. Glauc/o
  55. Nyct/o
  56. Phot/o
  57. Scot/o
  58. Xer/o
  59. -ectasia, -ectasis
    Dilation, widening
  60. -lysis
    Destruction, breakdown, separation
  61. -malacia
  62. -meter
  63. -opia, -opsia
  64. -Spasm
    Sudden contraction of muscles
  65. -tropia
    To turn
  66. Blepharoptosis
    a drooping or abnormal relaxation of the upper eyelid
  67. Dacryoadenitis
    inflammation of the lacrimal glands
  68. Ophthalmoplegia
    a paralysis or weakness of one or more of the muscles that control eye movement.
  69. Mydriasis
    excessive dilation of the pupil of the eye, as the result of disease, drugs, or the like.
  70. Hemianopsia
    a type of anopsia where the decreased vision or blindness takes place in half the visual field of one or both eyes.
  71. Binocular
    Pertaining to both eyes
  72. Blepheral
    Pertaining to the eyelid
  73. Conjunctival
    Pertaining to the conjunctiva
  74. Corneal
    Pertaining to the cornea
  75. Intraocular
    Within or inside the eye
  76. Iridal, iridial
    Pertaining to the iris
  77. Lacrimal
    Pertaining to tears
  78. Ocular, ophthalmic
    Pertaining to the eye
  79. Optic
    Pertaining to vision
  80. Pupillary
    Pertaining to the pupil
  81. Retinal
    Pertaining to the retina
  82. Scleral
    Pertaining to the sclera
  83. Astigmatism
    Distorted, blurry vision caused by abnormal curvature of the cornea or lens
  84. Color blindness
    Deficiency in distinguishing some colors
  85. Hyperopia
  86. Myopia
  87. Nyctalopia
    Poor vision in reduced light or at night; commonly called night blindness
  88. Photophobia
    Extreme sensitivity to light
  89. Presbyopia
    Impaired vision caused by old age
  90. Amblyopia
    • Poor vision, usually in only one eye, caused by abnormal development of the visual areas
    • Also known as "lazy eye"
  91. Diplopia
    Double vision
  92. Conjunctivitis
    • Highly contagious inflammation of the conjunctiva
    • Commonly known as pink eye
  93. Ophthalmia
    condition of the eye characterized by severe conjunctivitis
  94. Pterygium
    • Growth of conjunctival tissue over the cornea
    • Usually associated with prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light
  95. Cataract
    • Clouding of the lends of the eye, which causes poor vision
    • Degenerative eye disease
  96. Diabetic retinopathy
    • Degenerative changes of the retina caused by diabetes mellitus
    • May lead to blindness
  97. Optician
    One who fills prescriptions for corrective lens
  98. Optometry
    Medical specialty concerned with the measurement of vision and prescription of corrective treatment or lenses
  99. Ophthlamology
    Medical specialty concerned with the study of the eye, its diseases, and refractive errors
  100. Acous/o
  101. Audi/o
    Hearing, the sense of hearing
  102. Audit/o
  103. Aur/o, Auricul/o, Ot/o
  104. Cochle/o
  105. Myring/o, Tympan/o
    Tympanic membrane, eardrum
  106. Ossicul/o
  107. Salping/o
    Eustachian tube, auditory tube
  108. Staped/o
  109. Vestibul/o
  110. -acusis, -cusis
  111. -meter
    Instrument to measure
  112. -otia
    Ear condition
  113. aural, otic
    Pertaining to the ear
  114. labyrinthine
    Pertaining to the labyrinth or inner ear
  115. tympanic
    Pertaining to the tympanic membrane or tympanic cavity
  116. Vestibular
    Pertaining to a vestibule
  117. Ears
    • Provide hearing by translating sound waves to nerve impulses that are carried to the brain
    • To assist the body in maintaining equilibrium or balance
    • The ears consist of:
    • Pinna (Outer Ear), Tympanic membrane & Auditory Ossicles (Middle Ear), and Labyrinth (Inner Ear)
    • Pinna-->Auditory canal-->Tympanic membrane-->Ossicles-->Oval window-->Cochlea-->Hair cells-->Auditory nerve-->Brain
    • Sound Energy-->Mechanical Energy-->Electrochemical Energy
  118. Pinna
    • The outer ear
    • External auditory meatus (auditory canal)
  119. Cerumen
    • waxy substance created by glands of the external auditory meatus
    • earwax
  120. Tympanic Membrane
    • Middle ear consisting of tympanic
    • membrane (or eardrum) and the auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes)
  121. Labyrinth
    • Inner ear
    • Cochlea;  auditory nerve fibers
  122. acous/o
  123. audi/o
    hearing, the sense of hearing
  124. audit/o
  125. aur/o, auricul/o, ot/o
  126. cochle/o
  127. myring/o, tympan/o
    tympanic membrane, eardrum
  128. ossicul/o
  129. salping/o
    eustachian tube, auditory tube
  130. staped/o
  131. vestibul/o
  132. -acusis, -cusis
  133. -meter
    instrument to measure
  134. -otia
    ear condition
  135. acoustic-
    pertaining to hearing or sound
  136. auditory-
    pertaining to hearing
  137. aural, otic-
    pertaining to the ear
  138. cochlear-
    pertaining to the cochlea
  139. labyrinthine-
    pertaining to the labyrinth or inner ear
  140. tympanic-
    pertaining to the tympanic membrane or tympanic cavity
  141. vestibular-
    pertaining to a vestibule
  142. acoustic neuroma
    a benign tumor that develops on the acoustic nerve and causes hearing loss
  143. cerumen impaction
    excessive buildup of earwax
  144. cholesteatoma
    • cystlike tumor of skin in the middle ear behind the tympanic membrane usually caused by chronic otitis media
    • Associated with perforated tympanic membrane
  145. Ménière disease, Ménière syndrome
    • Chronic condition of the inner ear characterized by dizziness, tinnitus, hearing loss, and a sensation of pressure in the ear
    • Unknown cause
    • Nerve deafness
    • Impairment of cochlea or auditory nerve
  146. otitis media (OM)
    • inflammation of the middle ear
    • Usually follows upper respiratory tract infection
  147. Serous otitis media
    • Noninfectious inflammation
    • Accumulation of serous fluid
    • Treatment:
    • Aspirate fluid
    • Tympanostomy
  148. otomycosis
    fungal infection in the ear
  149. otopyrrhea
    discharge of pus from the ear
  150. otorrhea
    discharge from the ear
  151. presbycusis
    impaired hearing caused by old age
  152. tinnitus
    noises in the ear, such as ringing, buzzing, or humming
  153. vertigo
    • a spinning sensation
    • commonly used to mean dizziness
  154. Audiogram
    Record of hearing (presented in graph form)
  155. Audiometer
    Instrument for measuring hearing
  156. Audiometry
    Measurement of hearing using audiometer
  157. Decibel (dB)
    unit for expressing the intensity of sound
  158. Electronystagmography (ENG)
    recording of eye movements in response to electrical impulses to diagnose balance problems
  159. hertz (Hz)
    unit of measure of frequency or pitch of sound
  160. otoscope
    instrument for examining the ear
  161. Otoscopy
    use of an otoscope to examine the external auditory canal and tympanic membrane
  162. tympanogram
    record of middle ear function (presented in graph form)
  163. tympanometry
    measurement of middle ear function
  164. cochlear implant
    an electronic device implanted in the cochlea to stimulate the auditory nerve and provide hearing sensations for the profoundly deaf
  165. myringotomy, tympanostomy
    surgical incision (opening) into the tympanic membrane to drain fluid from the middle
  166. otoplasty
    surgical repair of the external ear
  167. stapedectomy
    • removal of the stapes and replacement with a prosthesis
    • done to correct hearing loss from otosclerosis
  168. tympanoplasty
    surgical repair of the tympanic membrane and/or middle ear
  169. tympanostomy tube placement
    placement of a tube in the tympanic membrane to relieve symptoms caused by fluid buildup
  170. antibiotic
    used to treat otitis media and other ear diseases caused by bacteria
  171. Ceruminolytic
    A substance instilled into the external auditory canal to soften earwax
  172. otic
    Any medication that can be instilled into the ear drop by drop
  173. audiology
    medical specialty concerned with the study and treatment of hearing disorders and fitting of hearing aids
  174. audiologist
    one who specializes in audiology
  175. otology
    medical specialty concerned with the study of the ears and treatment of ear disease
  176. otologist
    physician who specializes in otology
  177. otorhinolaryngology
    medical specialty concerned with diseases of the ear, nose, and throat
  178. otorhinolaryngologist
    physician who specializes in otorhinolaryngology