Med Terms 13

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liana_george
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225196
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Med Terms 13
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2013-07-02 18:31:12
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medical terminology respiratory
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Respiratory System
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  1. Respiratory System
    • Consist of an upper and lower respiratory system
    • Functions:
    • Supply oxygen to body cells and tissues
    • Eliminate carbon dioxide from the body
    • Provide airflow between the upper and lower respiratory tracts through the larynx and vocal cords, making human vocal sounds possible
  2. Cilia
    • Hairlike projections on the mucus membranes inside the nose
    • Filter out foreign bodies, warm and moisten air
  3. Nasal septum
    Divides right and left nasal cavities
  4. Paranasal sinuses
    • Air-filled cavities in the bones of the face connecting to the nasal cavity
    • Produce mucus, produce sound
  5. Pharynx (throat)
    • Space behind the mouth
    • Air enters the nose and passes through the nasal cavity, reaching the pharynx
    • Three divisions: nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx
  6. Nasopharynx
    • Contains pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) which are collections of lymphatic tissue
    • More prominent in children
    • When enlarged can obstruct airway
  7. Oropharynx
    Location for the palatine tonsils (two rounded masses of lymphatic tissue)
  8. Laryngopharynx
    • Serves as passageway for air from the nose and mouth to the larynx
    • Divides into two branches: larynx (voice box) and esophagus
  9. Epiglottis
    Prevents choking by closing over the upper region of larynx during swallowing
  10. Larynx
    Air passageway btw the pharynx and trachea
  11. Glottis
    • Vocal cords
    • Vocal structure of the larynx
    • Vocal cords vibrate to produce sound in response to expelled air
  12. Trachea
    • Air passage from the larynx into the thorax
    • In the mediastinum, the trachea divides into two  branches called bronchial tubes or bronchi
  13. Bronchi
    • Two subdivisions of the trachea serving to convey air to and from the lungs
    • Each bronchus (singular) leads to a separate lung
    • Bronchus divides into smaller tubes called bronchioles
  14. Alveoli
    Saclike cavities where gas is exchanged btw the lungs and blood
  15. Bronchioles
    • Finer subdivisions of the bronchi located in the lungs
    • Each terminal bronchiole end in alveoli
  16. Lungs
    Spongy organs of respiration in which blood is aerated
  17. Lobes
    Subdivisions of the lungs
  18. Pleura
    Double folded membrane surrounding the lungs and lining the pleural cavity
  19. Parietal pleura
    Outer layer nearest to the ribs
  20. Visceral pleura
    Inner layer closest to the ribs
  21. Pleural cavity
    Space btw the layers (parietal and visceral) of the pleura
  22. Diaphragm
    Muscular partition btw the abdominal and thoracic cavities
  23. Thorax
    • Anatomic region of the body extending from the neck to the diaphragm; formed by:
    • The sternum
    • The thoracic vertebrae
    • The ribs
  24. Mediastinum
    • Area of the thoracic cavity btw the lungs
    • Contains the:
    • Heart
    • Aorta
    • Esophagus
    • Trachea and Thymus
  25. Path of Air
    • •Air passes from the larynx to the trachea
    • (windpipe).
    • •In the mediastinum, the trachea divides
    • into two branches called bronchial tubes or bronchi.
    • •Each bronchus (singular) leads to a
    • separate lung. 
    • Bronchus
    • divides into smaller tubes called bronchioles. 
    • Each terminal bronchiole end in alveoli.
    • •Alveolus is lined with a single layer of
    • epithelium which permits exchange of gas between the alveolus and the capillary
    • that surrounds it.
    • •Blood in capillary accepts oxygen from
    • the alveolus while releasing carbon dioxide into alveolus. 
    • •Erythrocytes carry oxygen to the body and
    • carbon dioxide to lungs to be exhaled. 
    • •Each lung is covered by pleura, the outer
    • layer is the parietal pleura and the inner layer is the visceral pleura. The
    • lungs extend from the collarbone to the diaphragm.
  26. External Respiration
    —Process of inspiration and expiration

    —Expiration (exhalation) - breathing out

    —Inspiration (inhalation) - breathing in
  27. Internal Respiration
    Exchange of gases between blood and cells
  28. Ventilation
    Distribution of gas into and out of the lungs
  29. Dyspnea
    Labored or difficult breathing
  30. Apnea
    Temporary absence of breathing
  31. Orthopnea
    Difficulty breathing while lying down
  32. Eupnea
    Normal respirations (12-16 breaths/min)
  33. Bradypnea
    Slow respirations
  34. Tachypnea
    Rapid respirations (>25 breaths/min)
  35. Hyperpnea
    Breathing that is deeper than normal
  36. Hyperventilation
    Increased aeration of the lungs
  37. Hypoxia
    Less than normal oxygen
  38. Anoxia
    Absence of oxygen
  39. Alveol/o
    Alveolus, air sac
  40. Bronchi/o, Bronch/o
    Bronchus, bronchial tube
  41. Bronchiol/o
    Bronchiole, small bronchus
  42. Capn/o
    Carbon dioxide
  43. Cost/o
    Rib
  44. Epiglott/o
    Epiglottis
  45. Laryng/o
    Larynx, voice box
  46. Lob/o
    Lobe of the lung
  47. Mediastin/o
    Mediastinum
  48. Muc/o
    Mucus
  49. Nas/o, Rhin/o
    Nose
  50. Orth/o
    Straight, upright
  51. Ox/o
    Oxygen
  52. Pector/o
    Chest
  53. Pharyng/o
    Pharynx
  54. Phon/o
    Voice
  55. Phren/o
    Diaphragm
  56. Pleur/o
    Pleura
  57. Pneum/o, Pneumon/o
    Lung, air
  58. Pulmon/o
    Lung
  59. Rhin/o
    Nose
  60. Sinus/o
    Sinus, cavity
  61. Spir/o
    Breathing
  62. Tel/o
    Complete
  63. Thorac/o
    Chest
  64. Tonsill/o
    Tonsils
  65. Trache/o
    Trachea, windpipe
  66. Em-
    In
  67. -ema
    Condition
  68. -osmia
    Smell
  69. -pnea
    Breathing
  70. -ptysis
    Spitting
  71. -sphyxia
    Pulse
  72. -thorax
    Pleural cavity, chest
  73. Rales (crackles)
    Popping or clicking sounds, indicates fluid in alveoli
  74. Rhonchi
    • Rumbling sounds, bronchi obstructed by sputum
    • Sputum: material expelled from bronchi, lungs or upper respiratory tract
  75. Pleural Rub
    Friction sounds in the lungs when pleural surfaces rub against one another
  76. Stridor
    Whistling sound heard on inspiration, obstruction in pharynx or larynx (i.e. allergic reaction)
  77. Wheeze
    Airy, whistling-type sound, caused by narrowed airway (i.e. asthma)
  78. Croup
    Acute viral infection in infants & children, characterized by obstruction of larynx (cough and stridor)
  79. Pertussis (whooping cough)
    —Acute infectious inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis

    —Highly contagious; is a vaccine preventable disease

    —Coughing that ends in loud ‘whooping’ inspiration
  80. Asthma (Bronchial disorders)
    —Chronic severe breathing disorder characterized by attacks of wheezing due to inflammation and narrowing of the airways

    —Signs and symptoms- —Dyspnea, wheezing, cough

    —Cause- Allergy, infection

    —Treatment- —Inhaled anti-inflammatory agents, bronchodilators, avoid triggers
  81. Cystic Fibrosis (Bronchial disorders)
    —Inherited disorder of exocrine glands

    —Blood test to detect gene

    —Affects cells that produce mucus, sweat and digestive juices

    —Instead of acting as a lubricant, secretions plug up tubes, ducts and passageways, Especially in lungs and pancreas

    • —Treatment- —Treat infections and pulmonary
    • obstruction, lung transplantation
  82. Emphysema
    • —Known as chronic obstructive pulmonary
    • disease (COPD)

    —Air sacs in lungs are gradually destroyed, making you progressively more short of breath

    —Leads to increase in pulmonary artery pressure

    —Smoking is leading cause of emphysema
  83. Lung Cancer
    —Uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in one or both lungs;  begins with a mutation in a cell’s DNA

    —Caused by normal aging process or environmental factors such as cigarette smoke, breathing in asbestos fibers, and to exposure to radon gas

    —Two types of lung cancer:

    —Non-small cell

    —Small cell 
  84. Pneumonia
    • ——Bacterial infection and inflammation within the lobes of the lungs- Alveolar
    • membrane can become damaged

    • Exudate
    • (fluid, blood cells, debris) compromises the ability of the alveoli to exchange
    • air

    • •Infiltrate is a fluid-filled area within the lungs that can be visualized on a chest X-ray
    • or CT scan
    • Bacterial pneumonia- pneumonia caused by a bacterial infection

    —Pneumococcal pneumonia - form of pneumonia caused by the bacterial species Streptococcus pneumoniae

    •Bronchopneumonia- infection of the smaller bronchial tubes of the lungs

    •Common in infants and the elderly

    Lobar pneumonia- infection of the alveoli caused by fluid and pus filling an entire lobe of the lung

    —Nosocomial (hospital acquired)

    —Aspiration

    • —Caused by material such as food or
    • vomitus- Lodges in bronchi or lungs

    • —Elderly, Alzheimer patients, stroke
    • victims and people with dysphagia are at risk
  85. Pulmonary abcess
    Collection of pus in the lungs- bacterial infection
  86. Pulmonary edema
    Air sacs and bronchioles fill with fluid
  87. Pulmonary embolism
    Clot or other material lodges in the lung, usually travels from veins in the leg causing a pulmonary infarction
  88. Atelectasis
    —Collapsed lung - —Bronchioles and alveoli resemble a collapsed balloon

    —Causes include blockage (i.e., tumor, secretions) of bronchus or smaller bronchial tube

    —As a result air, fluid, blood, etc. accumulates in pleural cavity
  89. Tuberculosis (TB)
    —Infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a bacterium that attacks the lungs and is spread through the air from one person to another

    —Bacilli produce small tubules
  90. Mesothelioma
    Malignant tumor in the pleura, caused by asbestos exposure
  91. Pneumothorax
    Air in the pleural space, may follow trauma, perforation of the chest wall
  92. Hypoxemia
    Decreased level of oxygen in the blood
  93. Hypoxia
    Decreased levels of oxygen in the tissue
  94. Acid-fast Bacilli (ABF) Smear
    Test performed on sputum for the presence of the bacteria that cause tubercolosis
  95. Arterial Blood Gases (ABG)
    Test performed on arterial blood to determine the level of oxygen and carbon dioxide; is used to check how well your lungs are able to move oxygen into the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the blood
  96. Tuberculin Test
    Uses purified protein derivative (PPD); skin test used to determine if a patient has developed an immune response to the bacteria that cause tuberculosis
  97. Chest Radiography (CXR)
    Radiographic image of the chest used to evaluate the lungs and heart
  98. Ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan
    Test used to access distribution of blood flow and ventilation through both lungs
  99. Positron Emission Tomography
    Radioactive glucose is injected; tumors have higher metabolic activity
  100. Bronchoscopy
    Endoscopic examination of the larynx and airways using fiberoptic endoscope
  101. Peak flow monitoring
    • Peak flow meter is a portable, easy-to-use device that measures the rate of air flow through the airways and is a measure of how well your lungs are working
    • Helps manage asthma symptoms and prevent asthma attack
  102. Polysomnography
    • Monitoring and recording normal and abnormal activity during sleep
    • Sleep apnea- breathing blocked or partly blocked during sleep
    • May happen from 5 to more than 50 times an hour.
  103. Pulse Oximetry
    Measurement of oxygen saturation in the blood
  104. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs)
    —Group of tests that measure how well the lungs take in and release air and how well they move gases such as oxygen from the atmosphere into the body's circulation

    —Spirometry - measures air flow and volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs using a spirometer
  105. Thorascopy
    Endoscopic examination of the thorax done through a small opening in the chest wall
  106. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS)
    Thoracic surgery performed using endoscopic cameras, optical systems, display screens, and surgical instruments; enables surgeons to view the inside of the chest cavity and remove tissue to test for disease
  107. Adenoidectomy
    Excision of the adenoids
  108. Laryngectomy
    Excision of the larynx
  109. Lobectomy
    Excision of a lobe (of the lung)
  110. Pneumonectomy
    Excision of the lung
  111. Tonsillectomy
    Excision of one or both tonsils
  112. Bronchoplasty
    Surgical repair of the bronchus
  113. Rhinoplasty
    Surgical repair of the nose
  114. Septoplasty
    Surgical repair of the sinus
  115. Tracheoplasty
    Surgical repair of the trachea
  116. Laryngotracheotomy
    Incision of the larynx and trachea
  117. Sinusotomy
    Incision of the sinus
  118. Thoracentesis
    Surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the chest cavity
  119. Thoracotomy
    Incision into the chest cavity
  120. Tracheostomy
    Creation of an artificial opening in the trachea
  121. Tracheotomy
    Incision of the trachea
  122. Aspiration
    Removal of accumulated fluid by suction
  123. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
    Medical procedure to ventilate the lungs and artificially circulate the blood
  124. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy
    Breathing apparatus that pumps constant pressurized air through the nasal passages via a mask
  125. Endotracheal intubation
    Tube inserted in the larynx ad trachea to establish an airway for breathing purposes
  126. Hyperbaric Medicine
    Medicinal use of high barometric pressure to increase oxygen content of blood and tissues
  127. Mechanical ventilation
    Use of an automatic mechanical device to perform all or part of the work of breathing
  128. Incentive spirometry
    Used to encourage patients to breathe deeply by using a spirometer that gives visual feedback as the patient inhales forcefully
  129. Otorhinolaryngology
    Medical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the ear, nose and throat
  130. Pulmonology
    Medical specialty concerned with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory tract

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