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"Persons who are interacting with one another in such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by the others."
What is a small group?
A group small enough that each member is aware of and able to recall every other member in the group.
What are the two different group types?
Formal and informal
What are the characteristics of a formal group?
Someone has identified a task that needs to done, which requires some kind of organizational system, made up of various roles, for which individuals are recruited.
What are the characteristics of an informal group?
Group of individuals meet, they form a group and informally allocate roles among themselves depending on preference; the collection makes a system possible.
Name the three principles of the Bruce Tuckman Group Development Model.
Bruce Tuckman Group Development Model:
Under thematic, what are the two dominant themes?
Task Dimension (content), and Relationship Dimension (maintenance).
Bruce Tuckman Model:
What are the five stages of the group/team development?
- Forming - superficial, each seek similarities
- Storming - most difficult, tend to argue
- Norming - reconcile, accept group norms
- Performing - diagnosing and solving problems
- Adjourning - experience anxiety about leaving
What are informal rules, or norms?
They guide/regulate the behavior of group members. Rarely do they specify absolutes and are not imposed by authority, such as facilitators.
What are the two types of norms?
General norms - direct the behavior of the group as a whole.
Role-specific norms - concern individual members with particular roles ex. Facilitator.
List group Task, Maintenance and Individual Functions.
Task: groups primarily carry out a task, most groups focus mainly on this.
Maintenance: members feel safe and contribute freely, gatekeeping dramatizing.
Individual Functions: members have a set of personal needs, when not met, they act up. Ex. non-participation, withdrawal, and blocking.
Identify how small groups operate.
They operate through input, throughput, and output variables.
- Input: values and beliefs are shared, purpose and goals are understood.
- Throughput: members are skilled and considerate, norms and values are understood.
- Output: high cohesiveness, parent organization is strengthened by the group's work.
Identify the elements necessary for group success.
- Clarity in group goals
- Clearly defined roles
- Clear communication
- Beneficial group behaviors
- Well-defined decision procedures
- Balanced participation
- Established ground rules
- Awareness of the groups process
What is the definition of Self-Concept?
- "The perception that we have of ourselves which allow us to shape and reshape reality from our point of view."
The total self-concept includes ideas about:
- How we picture ourselves
- How others see us
- How we wish ourselves to be seen
Describe Membership and Reference groups.
- Membership groups: include race, ethnicity, religion, gender, age, and social class.
- Reference groups: include military experience, affiliation, educational background, geografic location, martial status, and parental status.
What is the most influential agent of socialization?
What is a category into which a value can be placed?
Define a value system.
"A set of values adopted by an individual or society that influences the behavior of that individual."
Define Ego Defense Mechanism.
"Coping behaviors that allow us to selectively interpret information when we are challenged on a value, attitude, or belief."
List 4 ego defense mechanisms.
- Denial - refusal to recognize it.
- Rationalization - take a situation and turn it around
- Projection - placing blame for difficulties upon others
- Compensation - Making up for a feeling of inadequacy by seeking to excel in a different way.
What can be an upsetting idea and may require a catalyst for change?
S.E.E: Significant Emotional Event.
Example: birth, death, divorce, promotion, terminal illness, falling in/out of love, life-saving event, or going to war.
How are new patterns of behavior established?
- Increasing awareness
- Spending time in self-reflection
Identify strategies for changing an individual's attitude and behavior.
- Be realistic
- Goals should be realistic
- Become self-motivated (help others do the same)
Dramatizing, Gate Keeping, Harmonizing, Supporting and Establishing Norms, are all part of what function when working with a group?
- Remember there are:
- Individual/Self-centered Functions
Inaccurate expectations, and impressions, poor choices in the work environment, unfair treatment and discrimination are all impacts to the organization/mission due to what?
Perceptual shortcuts / Perception shortcuts
Describe the biological perceptual filters and state their effects on the perceptions process.
Sight: how we judge a person based on what we see race, age, height, walk, dress, type hair
Touch: how we feel when we touch someone ex. a weak handshake.
Hearing: perception can triggered by the sound of a person's voice over the phone ex. young or age, race or ethnicity.
Taste: perceptions can be based on whether we have similar tastes in food ex. Mexican food = bean eater.
Smell: how someone smells, the smell of their house or breath can trigger assumptions on our perception.
Allows us to justify or rationalize our behavior and deceive ourselves, accept or reject certain groups; and selectively maintain our perception and thinking about a group.
Raw data: seeing an image, hearing a sound, inhaling a smell
Mental process: unseen affected by motives and driven by personal bias. Derived from culture, socialization and experience.
Product: sensing, or interpretation of our experience.
Description of Elements of the Perception Process.
Describe the sociological/cultural perceptual filters and state their effects on the perceptions process.
- Fixed, rigid ideas: difficult to change once they form a perception
- Overgeneralizations or oversimplifications: exaggerations of real group differences
- Not supported by reasonable evidence: illogical or irrational foundations.
- Driven by motives: fear, rationalization, and prejudice. inaccurate information based on this.
- Adverse impact: causes them to appear more similar than they really are.
Being aware of stereo typing, listening actively, identifying applications of facts, interacting with different groups, and seeking individuating information with commonalities, are all good strategies for what?
Correcting an inaccurate perception.
Forces acting from within us that cause us to turn ideas into directed actions.
State Maslow's 5 level Hierarchy of needs, with the bottom two being derivational needs and the top three being growth needs.
We are all motivated to take action toward personal growth.
- Level 5: Self-Actualization
- Level 4: Esteem
- Level 3: Social
- Level 2: Safety
- Level 1. Physiological
Identify the two limitations of Maslow's theory in cross-cultural settings.
Collectivism and Individualism.
The insight that people are motivated by 3 basic needs: achievement, affiliation, and power. is known as what theory?
McClelland's needs theory.
What are the different types of formal briefs?
- Information brief
- Advocacy/Decision brief
- Staff brief
- Mission brief
In the the introduction to a formal brief, there are three sub purposes.
- Stage setting remarks
- Purpose statement
Read-aheads, Point/talking/position papers, visual aids and powerpoints.
What are support materials used to conduct a brief?
Memory ticklers or quick-reference outlines used during meetings to informally pass information quickly to another person or office.
Quick-reference outlines on key points, facts, positions and questions to use during oral presentation.