Human growth and development

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moon23
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225245
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Human growth and development
Updated:
2013-06-29 17:23:03
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chapter one
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  1. Define lifespan development
    Is the field of study that examines patterns of growth,change, and stability in behavior that occur throughout the life span
  2. define physical development
    examine the ways in which the body's makeup-brain, nervous system, muscles, and senses, and the need for food, drink, and sleep-helps determine behavior.
  3. define cognitive development
    seeking to understand how growth and change in intellectual capabilities influence a persons behavior.
  4. define personality development
    is the study of stability and change in characteristics that differentiate one person from another over the life span
  5. define social development
    is the way in which individuals interactions and relationships with others grow, change, and remain stable over the course of life
  6. define social construction
    is a shared notion reality that is widely accepted but is a function of society and culture at a given time
  7. define cohort
    a group of people born at around the same time in the same place
  8. define history-graded influences
    biological and environmental influences associated with a particular historical event
  9. define age-graded influences
    are biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group, regardless of when or where they are raised.
  10. define continuous change
    development is gradual, with achievements at one level building on those of previous levels.
  11. define discontinuous change
    • occurring in distinct stages
    • each stage brings about behavior that is assumed to be qualitatively different from behavior at earlier stages.
  12. define critical period
    is a specific time during development when a particular event has its greatest consequences
  13. define sensitive periods
    in a sensitive period organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environment.
  14. define maturation
    it encompasses any factor that is produced by predetermined unfolding of genetic information. its a process
  15. define nature as it refers to human development
    refers to traits, abilities, and capacities that are inherited from ones parents.
  16. define nurture
    refers to the environmental influences that shape behavior.
  17. define theories
    broad, organized, explanations and predications concerning phenomena of interest
  18. define psychodynamic perspective
    a theory that much of our behavior is motivated by inner forces , memories, and conflicts of which a person has little awareness or control
  19. define psychoanalytic theory
    that unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior
  20. define unconscious
    is a part of the personality about which a person is unaware
  21. define pleasure principle
    in which the goal is to maximize pleasure and reduce tension
  22. define reality principle
    in which instinctual energy is restrained in order to maintain the safety of the person and help them integrate into society
  23. define psychosexual development
    occurs as children pass through distinct stages in which pleasure, or gratification, is focused on a particular biological function and body part.
  24. what stages dose the psychosexual development have in order
    • 1. oral stage
    • 2. anal stage
    • 3. phallic and genital stage
  25. define psychosocial development
    deals with changes in how we interact and understand one another and understanding of us as a member of society
  26. define development perspective
    suggest that the keys understanding development are observable and environment stimuli
  27. define classical conditoning
    occurs when an organism learns to respond in a particular way to neutral stimuli
  28. define reinforcement
    is the process by which a behavior is followed by a stimuli that increases the probability that the behavior will be repeated.

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