Human growth and development
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Define lifespan development
Is the field of study that examines patterns of growth,change, and stability in behavior that occur throughout the life span
define physical development
examine the ways in which the body's makeup-brain, nervous system, muscles, and senses, and the need for food, drink, and sleep-helps determine behavior.
define cognitive development
seeking to understand how growth and change in intellectual capabilities influence a persons behavior.
define personality development
is the study of stability and change in characteristics that differentiate one person from another over the life span
define social development
is the way in which individuals interactions and relationships with others grow, change, and remain stable over the course of life
define social construction
is a shared notion reality that is widely accepted but is a function of society and culture at a given time
a group of people born at around the same time in the same place
define history-graded influences
biological and environmental influences associated with a particular historical event
define age-graded influences
are biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group, regardless of when or where they are raised.
define continuous change
development is gradual, with achievements at one level building on those of previous levels.
define discontinuous change
- occurring in distinct stages
- each stage brings about behavior that is assumed to be qualitatively different from behavior at earlier stages.
define critical period
is a specific time during development when a particular event has its greatest consequences
define sensitive periods
in a sensitive period organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environment.
it encompasses any factor that is produced by predetermined unfolding of genetic information. its a process
define nature as it refers to human development
refers to traits, abilities, and capacities that are inherited from ones parents.
refers to the environmental influences that shape behavior.
broad, organized, explanations and predications concerning phenomena of interest
define psychodynamic perspective
a theory that much of our behavior is motivated by inner forces , memories, and conflicts of which a person has little awareness or control
define psychoanalytic theory
that unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior
is a part of the personality about which a person is unaware
define pleasure principle
in which the goal is to maximize pleasure and reduce tension
define reality principle
in which instinctual energy is restrained in order to maintain the safety of the person and help them integrate into society
define psychosexual development
occurs as children pass through distinct stages in which pleasure, or gratification, is focused on a particular biological function and body part.
what stages dose the psychosexual development have in order
- 1. oral stage
- 2. anal stage
- 3. phallic and genital stage
define psychosocial development
deals with changes in how we interact and understand one another and understanding of us as a member of society
define development perspective
suggest that the keys understanding development are observable and environment stimuli
define classical conditoning
occurs when an organism learns to respond in a particular way to neutral stimuli
is the process by which a behavior is followed by a stimuli that increases the probability that the behavior will be repeated.
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