POLSCI 125 Quiz 3

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oathkeepr
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POLSCI 125 Quiz 3
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2013-07-04 20:18:58
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Political Science chapter 6, 7 and 8 notecards
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  1. Political Party is a group of (1)_______ _________ who organize to win (2)_________ to (3)_______ the government and to determine (4)_____ ______.
    • 1. political activists
    • 2. elections
    • 3. operate
    • 4. public policy
  2. Political Party is a group that competes for (1)________ _____ by contesting (2)________, mobilizing (3)______ _________ and advocating (4)__________ positions thus linking voters to the (5)_________ _______.
    • 1. political power
    • 2. elections
    • 3. social interests
    • 4. ideological
    • 5. political system
  3. Political Party an organization built around (1)_____________.
    1. partisanship
  4. A Political Party platform is a party document written during the (1)_______ __________ that contains party (2)__________, (3)__________ and (4)__________ on the issues
    • 1. national convention
    • 2. philosophy
    • 3. principles
    • 4. positions
  5. Political party platform parties organize (1)__ _________ around (2)_________ _____.
    • 1. US government
    • 2. competing ideas
  6. Political party platform a party is an agent of (1)________ ____________ and (2)_________ about how the government works and which public policy to (3)_______/_______.
    • 1. political socialization
    • 2. education
    • 3. support/oppose
  7. What are the three components of political parties?
    • party organization
    • party in government
    • party in electorate
  8. Three Components of Political Parties...
    Party organization
    formal political party structure, local, state and national leadership, election committees, active members, fundraisers, pollsters, PR experts, paid staff
  9. Three Components of Political Parties...
    Party in government
    candidates, office holders, staffers, appointees
  10. Three Components of Political Parties...
    Party in electorate
    registered members/supporters, largest sector, various degrees/levels of commitment
  11. electorate
    is also voters is also body politics and is used interchangeable with electorate
  12. DTS
    decline to state
  13. Liberalism and Conservatism
    are the two ideologies most commonly referred to in discussion of US politics; the fundamental or core cleavage/departure between liberalism and conservatism is over the role of government in the economy and society
  14. Liberalism
    is a political view supporting change in the (1)________, (2)______ and (3)________ status quo
    • 1. political
    • 2. social
    • 3. economic
  15. Which political party are liberals generally associated with?
    Democratic Party
  16. Liberalism
    Government is a means to correcting injustices through programs that reduce economic and social inequality
  17. Liberalism
    What do liberals believe in?
    social change, that government should take positive action to reduce poverty
  18. Liberals
    What are Democratic factions?
    • progressives
    • organized labor
    • civil rights
  19. **Liberalism
    Regulate the economy
    Redistribute the wealth
    Take care of the environment
    More tolerant
    Skeptical of military action
    Reproductive rights
    Immigrant rights
  20. **Conservatism
    Characterize by the defense of the status quo
  21. Conservatism
    Conservatives are against...
    major changes in the social, economic and political realms. They are also less tolerant.
  22. Conservatism
    Conservatives are opposed to...
    civil rights legislation and regulation of the economy
  23. Conservatism
    Conservatives support...
    strong fiscal responsibility, decrease government spending, lower taxes, property rights
  24. Conservatism
    Conservatives defend...
    business as the primary mainstay of the good society
  25. Conservatism
    Conservatives have a strong adherence to
    individual initiative and self-reliance
  26. Conservatism
    Conservatives believe that the rich and poor...
    get what they deserve
  27. Conservatism
    Conservatives believe that people are low-income because they are...
    lazy, incapable, and unmotivated; there is no involuntary poverty
  28. Conservatism
    What political party is associated with Conservatives?
    Republican Party
  29. Conservatism
    Sanctity of...
    private property
  30. Conservatism
    Conservative factions
    opposition to abortion, affirmative action, same-sex marriage; support for gun rights, school prayer, states' rights, immigration restriction, US intervention to spread free markets and democracy around the world
  31. Conservatism
    There is a (1)_________ orientation in most conservative movements. Examples of their movements are...
    • Family Research Council, Faith and Freedom Coalition, Alliance Defending
    • Freedom, American Family Association, Focus on the Family
  32. The Republican Party is traditionally (1)___-_______ and (2)_______ individuals.
    • 1. pro-business
    • 2. wealthy
  33. The Republican Party garnered support from a...
    wide range of industries.
  34. The South has been solidly Republican since...
    1980
  35. Republican Snapshot...
    College Degrees - (1)
    Caucasians - (2)
    Latinos - (3)
    Blacks - (4)
    • 1. 35%
    • 2. 89%
    • 3. 5%
    • 4. 2%
  36. Republican support among voters tends to...
    increase as their income, property-owning and education levels rise
  37. Conservatism...
    Conservatives believe that business has the right to...
    • make a profit off other people’s labor and to enjoy the benefits and privileges of
    • wealth.
  38. Conservatives blame the nation's ills on...
    decadent morality, decline of family & Christian values
  39. Democratic Party snapshot:
    non-white - (1)
    Caucasian - (2)
    College Degrees - (3)
    • 1. 36%
    • 2. 64%
    • 3. 21%
  40. Which political party does better among younger voters? What ages are considered "younger"?
    • Democratic Party
    • 18 - 30 years old
  41. Which political party is significantly more diverse?
    Democratic Party
  42. Which race is the core base for the Democratic Party?
    African-Americans
  43. Most democratic nations have which political system?
    Proportional representation
  44. Which country comes closest to a "pure" two-party system than any other nation in the world?
    The United States of America
  45. Winner-take-all
    a system in an election where the winner is the person who gets the most votes.

    The candidate who wins the state will get all of the states electoral vote.
  46. Proportional representation
    An electoral system in which each party is represented in the legislature in proportion to the percentage of the popular vote.
  47. Political equality
    each person has the right to participate in politics on equal terms
  48. Party Identification
    a political term to describe a voter's underlying allegiance to a political party. This can be based on gender, age, race/ethnicity, income
  49. Mechanisms of Political Change...
    Realignment
    A change in the nature of issues that distinguish or divide political parties
  50. Mechanisms of Political Change...
    Realignment
    The South switched from being solidly under democratic control for three reasons:
    • - Race
    • - Civil Rights Act, Voting Rights Act, affirmative action
  51. Mechanisms of Political Change...
    De-alignment
    A major drop-off in support for the parties.
  52. More people are finding that the (1)___ major (2)_______ ________ are (3)________ to their (4)_________ and (5)_____.
    • 1. two 
    • 2. political parties
    • 3. irrelevant
    • 4. interests
    • 5. needs
  53. Southern Democrats
    A strategy that some candidates use
  54. Duopoly
    a situation in which two suppliers dominate the market for a commodity or service

    i.e. Republicans and Democrats
  55. Partisanship
    taking the side of a political party or espousing a viewpoint that reflects a political party's principles or position on issues
  56. Political Action Committee (PAC)
    An organization that raises money privately and employs lobbyists to influence legislation.
  57. 527 organization
    a tax-exempt organization created for the purpose of influencing the election or appointment of public officials
  58. 527 organization example
    The term 527 group is used to refer to political organizations that are not regulated by the Federal Election Commission and are not subject to the same contribution limits as political action committees.
  59. Federal Election Commission (FEC)
    is a sovereign regulatory agency that was established by the United States Congress.
  60. What are the duties of the Federal Election Commission?
    Its duties include revealing campaign finance information, enforcing provisions of the law and overseeing the public funding of Presidential elections.
  61. Religious Right
    United States political faction that advocates social and political conservativism, school prayer, and federal aid for religious groups and schools
  62. Party in Power
    governing party, government party, party in office
  63. Electoral College is a group selected by state legislatures to represent the popular vote in federal elections.
  64. general election
    An election involving most or all constituencies in a state (or nation) in choosing candidates for office and voting on ballot measures
  65. incumbent
    the official who holds an office and is running for re-election
  66. turn-out
    the number of people who participate in or attend an event
  67. electoral votes
    the number that is equal to the number states U.S. senators (2 in each state) plus the number of its U.S. representatives which varies according to the state's population
  68. paradox of voting
    is that for a rational, self-interested voter the costs of voting will normally exceed the expected benefits
  69. function and role of elections...
    Why do elections not lead to a greater degree of democracy?
    low turnout, educational and income disparity in participation rates; dominant role of wealthy groups and contributors
  70. function and role of elections...
    Democratic theory places elections at the center of popular sovereignty/the essential tool by which citizens control what the government does. True/False
    True
  71. function and role of elections...
    For elections to be democratic, participation must occur across all (1)____ ______ equally [(2)____, (3)______, (4)_________, (5)________, (6)______ __________]
    • 1. socially groups
    • 2. race
    • 3. income
    • 4. occupation
    • 5. religion
    • 6. region differences
  72. function and role of elections...
    Elections are limited as instruments of linking...
    elites with non-elites.
  73. function and role of elections...
    Elections do not serve as mechanisms for choosing personnel. True/False
    False
  74. function and role of elections...
    Elections serve as a mechanism for choosing policy. True/False
    False
  75. function and role of elections...
    Candidates are not required to support their party's platform. True/False
    True
  76. threats to the democratic process...
    Two-party duopoly
  77. threats to the democratic process...
    Winner-take-all system
  78. threats to the democratic process...
    Ex-offenders disenfranchised (5 million)
    They did not commit murder, may be drug related, traffic-related, etc.
  79. threats to the democratic process...
    It is very, very difficult to resolve social and economic inequality through the electoral process
  80. threats to the democratic process...
    The 'consent of the governed' is manufactured
  81. threats to the democratic process...
    Elected officials are not bound by their campaign
  82. threats to the democratic process...
    Redistricting
  83. threats to the democratic process...
    Gerrymander
  84. threats to the democratic process...
    Voter suppression/Photo ID. At certain locations, voters were asked to provide two photo IDs. True/False
    True
  85. threats to the democratic process...
    In Florida in 2000, 36,000 minority and low-income registered voters turned away. They were told that their names were not added to the voter rolls. True/False
    True
  86. threats to the democratic process...
    Polls closed on-time. True/False
    False
  87. threats to the democratic process...
    State troopers searched cars
    There were also claims that individuals were held in contempt and let out after voting polls closed.
  88. threats to the democratic process...
    Requiring two photo IDs
    4-6 million votes were left uncounted in 2000 election
    Registration forms disappeared
    Absentee ballots mailed out too late
    In 2004, 3 million voters living abroad did not receive ballots
    Democratic voters stricken from the polls due to felonies never committed
  89. threats to the democratic process...
    Right-wing activists/religious fundamentalists distributed flyers warning voters who had unpaid traffic tickets, an arrest warrant or owed child support would be arrested at the polls.

    If voters came under such circumstances, could they be arrested?
    No.
  90. threats to the democratic process...
    in Warren, Ohio, Republican officials announced a "terrorist attack" - after press left ballots moved to a warehouse where the secret counting produced 14,000 more votes for Bush he received in 2000
  91. threats to the democratic process...
    The touch-screen voting machines made by Diebold, Sequoia and ES & S which were ardent Bush supports.
  92. Voting Behavior
    Party affiliation
    family and friends, role of the mass media, age, religion, education, occupation, economic status, race/ethnicity, ideological convictions, high/low stimulus
  93. Voting Behavior
    Group Benefits
  94. Voting Behavior
    Candidates
    experience, leadership personal qualities/image
  95. factors that influence voting
    • party affliation
    • family and friends
    • role of mass media
    • age
    • religion
    • education
    • occupation
    • economic status
    • race/ethnicity
    • ideological convictions
    • high/low stimlus
  96. why people do not vote...
    People are too (1)____, not (2)_________, did not like (3)_________, (4)_________ _________ towards politics, two major political parties are (5)_________.
    • 1. busy
    • 2. interested
    • 3. candidates
    • 4. negative attitude
    • 5. irrelevant
  97. why people do not vote...
    Voters are not given the kind of information that would provide
    an incentive
  98. why people do not vote...
    There is a broad-based distrust
    of government and politicians
  99. why people do not vote...
    Elections have become a
    futile formality, a deMOCKracy
  100. popular vote
    the actual number/percentage of votes garnered as opposed to the number/percentage of seats won
  101. campaign platform
    what a political party stands for
  102. Interest group
    is a group of people organized to pursue a common interest or interests through political participation to obtain favorable public policy decisions from government
  103. Interest group is also an organization
    which shares common political and economic interests and seeks to influence public policy by electioneering and lobbying
  104. Interest groups are protected by the 1st Amendment. True/False
    True
  105. Lobbying
    is any communication directed at a government decision-maker with the intent of influencing public policy decisions
  106. Lobbyist
    a person or firm that contacts government officials on behalf of a particular cause or issue for their clients or membership
  107. Super-PAC
    a type of independent political action committee which may raise unlimited sums of money from corporations, unions, and individuals but is not permitted to contribute to or coordinate directly with parties or candidates
  108. mass associations
    Interest groups that have a large number of dues-paying individuals as members.
  109. revolving door
    • former members of Congress become lobbyists (300)
    • Former congressional aides become lobbyists
    • Former White House staff become lobbyists
  110. elitism
  111. pluralism
  112. interest group state
    a government in which most policy decisions are determined by the influence of interest groups
  113. types of interests groups
    • economic groups
    • trade association
    • professional associations
    • ideological groups
    • public interest groups
    • public sector groups
  114. public interests
    deal with organizations and associations that seek to secure protection and benefits beyond their own members, often for society at large (public good)
  115. Citizens United
    a conservative non-profit organization in the United States
  116. What case is the Citizens United most known for?
    Citizens United v Federal Election Commission

    U.S. Supreme Court held that the 1st Amendment protection extends to corporations.
  117. ways that interests groups influence public policy/ interest group strategies...
    • access 
    • information (knowledge of legislative process, expertise, information about the group's position on issues [from think tanks]
    • campaign contributions
  118. hard money - congress has attempted to regulate
    soft money - is not regulated. difficult to track.
  119. iron triangle
    • Congressional standing or sub-committees
    • Government bureaucracy
    • Organized interest group
  120. private interests
    concern organizations and associations attempting to gain protection or material advantages from government for their own members
  121. inside strategies
    direct lobbying, drafting legislation and regulation, research, testimony
  122. outside strategies
    grassroots mobilizing, directly involving interest group members in lobbying and advocacy efforts (fax, letter, writing campaign, emails), influencing public opinion

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