LAW 7 Air operations
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Part 121 PIC and SIC experience requirements
- (1) 1500 total time including
- -- 500 hours in the type of operations to which this part applies
- -- 100 hours instrument, at least 50 in the plane
- (2) 100 hours of night if night ops are to be performed.
Second in command:
- (1) Suitably trained and qualified in that type
- (2) Is capable in the event of PIC incapacitate,
- -- flying on in prevailing and forecast weather
- -- Deputizing for PIC
- -- Landing at intended destination
Part 121 pilot Experience for all pilots other than PIC
- 500 hours total
- 25 hours night
- Current instrument rating
Part 121 and 125 Duty and flight time limitations?
- 100 hours 28 days
- 1000 hours 365 days
10 hours rest following any duty period
Flight hour limitations on 2 crew ops
- Rostered no more than 8 hours flight time in a duty period.
- -- May be extended to 8.5 hours to meet sched stuff up
- Shall not fly or be rostered to fly
- i) 35 hours in 7 days
- ii) 100 hours in 28 days
- iii) 300 hours in 90 days
Part 121 Flight attendants required? and duty assignments?
- 1) At least the minimum specified by the manufacturers evacuation procedures
- 2) At least one present in each occupied cabin.
- 3) at least as per below.
- Add one for every 50, but remove numbers 5 & 8
- (NOTE) may operate with one less than this but only if complies with first 2 rules above, and they are replaced at first landing where a replacement should be available.
- For for more than one F/A there will be a senior responsible to the PIC.
- for more than 6 there will be a Deputy as well.
125 PIC Type experience requirments
(Not for single engine)
- (1) Singles: 5 hours and 5 take-offs and landings
- (2) Multi 10 hours, 8 takeoff and landings
- (3) Jets 15 hours 10 take-offs and landings
This experience must come from air-Ops or during Ferry flights or in an approved SIM, and must be PIC under supervision hours.
125 PIC VFR requirments
- 500 hours total
- 100 hours cross country
- 25 hours night for night ops
125 PIC IFR Experience
- 1200 hours total
- 500 hours cross country
- 75 hours of actual or simulated, of which 25 can be in a SIM.
- 50 hours night for any night ops.
125 Airworthiness ops (specific to single engine ops)
as per ICAO Rules
- i) turbine powered
- ii) IFR Certified
- iii) Airworthiness standards as per FAR 23 Ammendment 28
Also- Prop and engine model used must 100,000 hours time in service in the same type of a/c, with mechanical IFDS of not more than 1 in 100,000
State the restrictions on Commercial transport ops carrying pax with a single engine aeroplane under IFR
Commercial transport ops are NOT approved.
Air Transport ops may be.
Part 121, state restrictions of night VFR and extended over water ops
No VFR by night.
no extended over water ops by Night.
State part 121/125 requirements for pax safety and carriage of certain pax
Each person performing an Air op shall ensure that;
Oddly enough the only diff in 121-125 seems to be who can sit by the emergency exits!
- 1) Pax are seated where they will not hinder an evacuation
- 2) No drunks allowed on plane
- 3) Disabled pax area appropriately cared for and seated for emergencies
- 4) Children under 15 and adults with infant are not seated in emergency exit row (121 Only)
- 5 Escorted pax do not constitute a safety hazard
- 6) PIC or senior F/A is notified when disable or escorted pax is onboard. (PIC with 125)
121/125 Requirements for keeping of an operation record
Each operator shall record
- i) the planned aspects of the op
- ii) the actual accomplishment of the op
the record shall be permanent in nature
Part 121/125 refueling restrictions
When under a part 119 certificate for Air Operates : Fuel call C, D
i) Can fuel or de-fuel while pax are moving provided operator ensures safety and evacuation precautions are taken
- ii) May have engines going, provided pax are disembarked under supervision before fueling commences
- -- and PIC is responsible for all aspects of fueling operation.
IFR requirements at commencing a flight
121 & 125
125 - Cannot take off unless forecast at time of arrival for destination indicates you will succeed on expected approach.
121 - Can be below mins at destination, but must be ok at one of your alternates at eta (also if outside NZ can go if has more than 1 runway available)
Reduced take off minima
121 requirements and limititations
- PIC and SIC are qualified for Reduced minima take-offs under 121
- Runway has centre-line markings or lighting
- Reduced minima are published in the AIP
- For twin props, must have auto-feather
- Runway viz is established using RVR
- Methods exist to determine required viz that is suitable to the director
Met restrictions for VFR under 121 & 125
- No extended over water ops VFR
- VFR Outside Controlled Airspace
- -- ceiling not less than 1000agl viz 5km
- -- beneath ceiling clear of cloud and in site of ground
- -- above not more that scatter cloud
- No VFR in multi over more than scattered unless
- -- Plane and crew are IFR rated and capable
- -- On one engine- flight path will keep them 1000ft above cloud
- -- fuel is carried to proceed for IFR procedure and approach at an aerodrome
- 125: Same as above, but
- -- extended over water ops are OK, and
- -- night VFR is approved with ceiling 3000ft, viz 16km
- -- if single, a/c must be approved for SEIFR
TOD 121 & 125
Does not exceed Take off distance available with critical engine failed and using single engine V1
Does not exceed 85% of Take-off distance available.
Take off flight path requirements for clearing obstacles 121-125
- -- 35ft for bank angle 15 or less (15ft if it complies with 121.207)
- -- 50ft for bank angle exceeding 15 (30ft if it complies with 121.207)
Part 121 turboJet Landing distance performance
For Jets - can use 60% of distance available
Turboprops - can use 70% of LDA
Part 125 Landing performance for Turboprops
- 5700kgs or below can use 85% of LDA
- above 5700kgs can use 75% of LDA
121/125 Landing performance on Wet and Contaminated runways
Must be at least 115% of the LDR by normal 121/125 rules.
Must be at least 115% of LDR or can be less than that if following contaminated landing distance data.
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