Bio Lab Practical 3

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kcarson
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225294
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Bio Lab Practical 3
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2013-06-28 16:06:10
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biology lab practical #3
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  1. If a band moved toward the red electrode, what is the charge of the molecules?
    negative
  2. What charge does DNA exhibit? Why
    Negative b/c of its phosphate backbone
  3. If two molecules have the same mass, but one migrated farther through the gel, which property was exhibited
    Shape of the molecules
  4. Which characteristic/ property dictates direction of migration in gel electrophoresis?
    charge
  5. Green-weak colorblindness (a recessive phenotype resulting in difficulty in distinguishing the color green? is due to a mutation in the green opsin gene, located on the X chromosome (X-linked). Normal color vision is the dominant phenotype. Use XG to symbolize the normal, dominant allele and Xg for the mutant, recessive allele.
    If your phenotype is "male with colorblindness", what is your genotype?
    XgY
  6. Huntington's disease (a dominant phenotype resulting in mental deterioration and paralysis) is caused by a mutation of the Huntington gene, located on chromosome 4 (autosomal). The mutant allele (H) is dominant relative to the normal, wildtype allele (h). Absence of the disease is the recessive phenotype.
    What is the phenotype? Hh
    Huntington's Disease
  7. GGreen-weak colorblindness (a recessive phenotype resulting in difficulty in distinguishing the color green? is due to a mutation in the green opsin gene, located on the X chromosome (X-linked). Normal color vision is the dominant phenotype. Use XG to symbolize the normal, dominant allele and Xg for the mutant, recessive allele.
    What is this person's gamete proportions for the green opsin gene? Genotype XGXg
    2/4 XG, 2/4 Xg
  8. If you have the genotype IBIO, what is your phenotype?
    Type B blood
  9. Red hair (a recessive phenotype) is caused by a mutation in the MCR-1 genelocated on chromosome 16 (autosomal). The wildtype allele (B) is dominant relative to the mutant allele (b). Non-red hair is the dominant phenotype.
    If BB and Bb give the phenotype non-red hair; and bb produces the phenotype red hair, what type of allelic interaction is occurring?
    Dominance / recessiveness
  10. Duchene muscular dystrophy (a dominant phenotype resulting in abnormal muscle function) is caused by a mutation in the DMD gene, located on the X chromosome (X-linked). Presence of the disease is the dominant phenotype. Use XD to symbolize the dominant, mutant allele on the X chromosome and Xd to symbolize the recessive, normal allele on the X chromosome.
    If the phenotype is "muscular dystrophy" and male, what are the possible genotypes this person could have?
    XDY
  11. A common cause of familial hypercholesterolemia (heritable high cholesterol) is due to a mutation in the autosomal gene LDLR, located on chromosome 19. Heterozygotes have an intermediate level of cholesterol and thus the allelic interaction is incomplete dominance. Use L+ and L- to symbolize the normal and mutant allele, respectively.
    If two parents with genotypes L+L+ and L-L_ mate, what would be the expected phenotypes of the offspring?
    genotypes: 4/4 L+L- so phenotype would be all intermediate cholesterol
  12. A common cause of familial hypercholesterolemia (heritable high cholesterol) is due to a mutation in the autosomal gene LDLR, located on chromosome 19. Heterozygotes have an intermediate level of cholesterol and thus the allelic interaction is incomplete dominance. Use L+ and L- to symbolize the normal and mutant allele, respectively.
    If two heterozygotes mate to produce 4/4 L+L- offspring who exhibit the phenotype of intermediate cholesterol. What type of allelic interaction occurred?
    Incomplete dominance
  13. A common cause of familial hypercholesterolemia (heritable high cholesterol) is due to a mutation in the autosomal gene LDLR, located on chromosome 19. Heterozygotes have an intermediate level of cholesterol and thus the allelic interaction is incomplete dominance. Use L+ and L- to symbolize the normal and mutant allele, respectively.
    If tow individuals with genotypes L+L+ and L-L- respectively, what would be the resulting genotypes if they mate?
    4/4 L+L-
  14. Red hair (a recessive phenotype) is caused by a mutation in the MCR-1 gene, located on chromosome 16 (autosomal). The wildtype allele (B) is dominant relative to the mutant allele (b). Non-red hair is the dominant phenotype.
    Is this person homozygous or heterozygous for the MCR-1 gene? Bb
    heterozygous
  15. GGreen-weak colorblindness (a recessive phenotype resulting in difficulty in distinguishing the color green? is due to a mutation in the green opsin gene, located on the X chromosome (X-linked). Normal color vision is the dominant phenotype. Use XG to symbolize the normal, dominant allele and Xg for the mutant, recessive allele.
    What would be the genotype be for a female that is colorblind?
    XgXg
  16. If you have the genotype IAIB. What proportion of your gametes would be IA?
    2/4 IA
  17. Blood type (A, B, AB, or O) is determined by the autosomal gene ABO, located on chromosome 9. There are three common alleles: IA, IB, and IO. Alleles IA and IB are co-dominant relative to one another but are dominant to IO.
    If this mating occurred , what proportion would have type O blood? IAIO x IBIO
    1/4 type O blood
  18. If the frequency of the UF allele is increasing, what is happening to the frequency of the Us allele?
    US allele will be decreasing
  19. In a population consisting of only spoons and forks, which genotype would you expect to decrease in frequency if the only prey available was lima beans?
    UFUF
  20. Name the three criteria for natural selection to occur.
    • 1. There must be variation in traits
    • 2. Those traits must be inheritable
    • 3. Those traits must affect an organisms ability to survive and reproduce
  21. What is the phenotype proportions for the offspring if this mating occurs? USUS x UFUF
    4/4 spork
  22. If a mating between a spoon (USUS) and a fork (UFUF) always produces a spork (USUF). What type of allelic interaction is occurring?
    Incomplete dominance
  23. What would be the gamete proportions of a spork? (USUF)
    2/4 US , 2/4 UF
  24. Calculate the allelic frequency of the Us allele.
    USUS , UFUF , UFUS
    10    ,  5    ,  5
    10+ 1/2 (5) / 10+5+5 = 0.625 x 100 = 62.5%
  25. Calculate the allelic frequency of UF
    USUS, USUF, UFUF
     
    20,    30,     10
    10+ 1/2 (30) / 20+30+10 = -4166 X 100 = 41.67%
  26. Huntington's disease (a dominant phenotype resulting in mental deterioration and paralysis) is caused by a mutation of the Huntington gene, located on chromosome 4 (autosomal). The mutant allele (H) is dominant relative to the normal, wildtype allele (h). Absence of the disease is the recessive phenotype.
    If this mating occurred, what proportion of their children would have Huntington's? HH x hh
    4/4 have huntington's

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