Medical Terminology Chapter 10

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jeanim
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225305
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Medical Terminology Chapter 10
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2013-06-28 19:26:21
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Neurology
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  1. cerebrum
    the largest part of the brain
  2. gyri
    elevated folds on the surface of the brain
  3. sulci
    narrow grooves on the surface of the brain
  4. fissure
    divides the cerebrum into right and left halves
  5. corpus callosum
    the connection between the right and left hemispheres
  6. right hemisphere
    recognizing faces, patterns, and three-dimensional structures. Analyzes the emotional content of words
  7. left hemisphere
    performs mathematical and logical reasoning and problem solving. Coordinates the recall of memories and contains the speech center.
  8. gustatory
    sense of taste
  9. frontal lobe
    • -conscious though and intelligence
    • -predicts future events 
    • -coordinates and analyzes information from other lobes
    • -exerts conscious, voluntary control over the skeletal muscles
    • -coordinates the muscles of the mouth, lips, tongue, pharynx, and larynx
  10. pariatal lobe
    -analyzes sensory information about touch, temperature, vibration, and pain

    -analyzes sensory information about taste
  11. Temporal lobe
    -analyzes sensory information about hearing. 

    -analyzes sensory information about smells
  12. occipital lobe
    analyzes sensory information about vision
  13. thalamus
    located near the center of the cerebrum.  Relay station, receiving sensory information from the cranial nerves and the spinal column. Also deals with emotions
  14. hypothalamus
    located below the thalamus.  Connected to the pituitary gland and functions as part of the endocrine and the nervous system.  Coordinates pons and mudulla oblongate, which controls heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate. Also regulates body temperature, hunger, sex drive and circadian rhythm.
  15. brain stem
    midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
  16. ventricles
    four interconnected cavities withing the brain.
  17. ependymal cells
    produce cerebrospinal fluid (CFS)
  18. midbrain
    the most superior part of the brainstem.  Coordinates immediate reflexes and muscle position. Contains the substantia nigra
  19. substantia nigra
    located in the midbrain.  Produces dopamine and regulates muscle tone.
  20. pons
    relay station that links nerve impulses from the spinal cord to the midbrain, hypothalamus, thalamus, and cerebrum.
  21. medulla oblongata
    the most inferior part of the brainstem.  Coordinates respiratory centers
  22. cerebellum
    inferior and posterior to the cerebrum.  receives sensory information about muscle tone and the position of the body and uses this to help maintain balance. Coordinates movement.
  23. dura mater
    outermost meninges - a tough fibrous layer that protects the brain
  24. arachnoid
    middle meninges of the brain
  25. subarachnoid space
    beneath the arachnoid layer - filled with CFS and contains large, branching fibers that connect the arachnoid to the pia mater
  26. pia mater
    the innermost layer of the meninges that contains a spider-weblike network of small blood vessels
  27. cauda equina
    a group of nerve roots located at the inferior end of the spinal column
  28. I olfactory nerve
    sensory - receives sensory information about smells
  29. II optic nerve
    sensory - receives sensory information about light, dark, and color from the rods and cones in the retina of the eye
  30. III oculomotor nerve
    motor - sends motor commands to four of the extraocular muscles to move the eye, eyelid and iris
  31. IV trochlear nerve
    motor - sends motor commands to one of the extraocular muscles to move the eye
  32. V trigeminal nerve
    sensory - receives sensory information about touch, temperature, vibration, and pain from the skin of the forehead, eyelids, eyebrows, face, nose, and lips and from the nasal cavity, oral cavity, gums, teeth, tongue, and palate

    motor - sends motor commands to move the muscles for chewing
  33. VI abducens nerve
    motor - sends motor commands to one of the extraocular muscles to move the eye
  34. VII facial nerve
    sensory - receives sensory information about taste (sweet, sour, bitter, etc.) from taste receptors in the front of the tongue

    motor - sends motor commands to move the facial muscles. Lacrimal glands and submandibular and sublingual salivary glands
  35. VIII vestibulo-cochlear nerve
    sensory - receives sensory information about sounds from the cochlea
  36. IX glossopharyngeal nerve
    sensory - receives sensory information about taste.  Receives sensory information about blood pressure and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in arterial blood

    motor - sends motor commands to move the muscles involved in swallowing. contracts the parotid gland to secrete saliva
  37. X vagus nerve
    sensory - receives sensory information about taste, touch, vibration, and pain from receptors in the ear, diaphragm and organs in the thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity

    motor - sends motor commands to slow the heart rate.
  38. XI accessory nerve
    motor - sends motor commands to move the muscles involved in swallowing. Moves the vocal cords.  Moves the muscles of the upper back and neck
  39. XII hypoglossal nerve
    motor - sends motor commands to move the tongue
  40. dorsal nerve roots
    posterior - receive sensory information from the skin.
  41. ventral nerve roots
    anterior - carry motor commands from the spinal cord to skeletal muscles and involuntary smooth muscles within organs, glands and other structures
  42. afferent nerve
    carry nerve impulses to the spinal cord
  43. efferent nerves
    they carry nerve impulses from the spinal cord to the body.
  44. astrocytes
    cells with branches that radiate outward like a star.  They support the dendrites of neurons and connect them to capillaries.
  45. microglia
    cells that move throughout the tissues of the brain and spinal cord. They engulf and destroy dead tissue and pathogens
  46. neuroglia
    perform specialized tasks to help neurons do their work
  47. oligodendroglia
    cells that provide structural support and produce myelin that surrounds the larger axons of neurons in the brain and spinal cord
  48. Schwann cells
    cells that produce myelin that surrounds the larger axons of neurons of the cranial nerves and the spinal nerves
  49. dendrites
    multiple branching structures at the beginning of the neuron
  50. nucleus
    directs cellular activities
  51. axon
    an elongated extension of cytoplasm at the end of the neuron

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