bio test 3

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bio test 3
2013-07-03 11:31:10
diffusion osmosis enzymes photosynthesis mitosis biology

flash cards for lab quiz 2 midland's tech biology class diffusion, osmosis, mitosis, enzymes, photosynthesis
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  1. What is energy?
    The ability to do work or bring about a change
  2. What are the two major types of energy?
    Kinetic and potential
  3. Kinetic:
     the energy of motion (like water flowing over a waterfall
  4. Potential:
    stored energy whose capacity to do work is not being used at the moment
  5. What do the laws of thermodynamics explain?
    Why energy flows thru ecosystems and thru cells
  6. What are the Laws of Thermodynamics?
    • 1st Law of Thermodynamics (Conservation) - Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but may be changed in form
    • 2nd Law of Thermodynamics (Entropy) - Nature tends toward greater randomness or disorder (greater entropy)
    • * Living systems maintain the order only through the constant intake of energy
  7. What is Energy of Activation?
    The energy that must be added to cause molecules to react with one another
  8. What is Entropy?
    Disorganization in the universe. Usable energy is lost when there is a changeLost energy increases disorder. When things are more organized they are less stable.
  9. What happens when energy is converted from one form to another?
     Usable energy is lost in the form of heat
  10. How can enzymes be turned on or off?
    An inhibitor can temporarily turn an enzyme off and denaturing an enzyme will turn it off forever
  11. enzymes
    organic catalysts, usually proteins, that speed up chemical reactions
  12. substrate
    the reactant in the enzymatic reaction
  13. active site
    the region of contact between the substrate and enzyme where the reaction occurs
  14. enzymes are not
    used up in a reaction
  15. factors that effect enzyme activity
    • temperature
    • pH
    • substrate concentration
  16. cold temperatures tend to
    slow chemical reactions
  17. warm temperatures tend to
    speed chemical reactions
  18. boiling causes
  19. energy of activation
    the energy that must be added to cause molecules to react with one another
  20. how do enzymes speed the rate of chemical reactions?
    they lower the amount of energy of activation
  21. Endergonic reactions:
     require you to put energy in (cellular respiration)
  22. Exergonic:
    yields energy ATP  ---> ADP + P
  23. Free energy -
     available to perform work
  24. Induced fit model:
     Enzyme is induced to undergo a slight alteration to achieve optimum fit for the substrates. Change shape to fit a 2nd substrate, to allow the 2 substrates to bind together (dehydration reaction)
  25. Competitive inhibition –
     either substrate or inhibitor can bind to active site (substrate and inhibitor are competing for active site)
  26. Noncompetitive inhibition –
     inhibitor binds at allosteric site. (location other than active site)
  27. Negative feedback-
    reversal or stopping of a metabolic pathway due to non-competitive inhibition by a product
  28. Positive feedback-
     starting the metabolic pathway
  29. Oxidation -
    loss of an electron; removal of hydrogens; release energy
  30. Reduction –
    gain of an electron (gain a negative charge); store energy
  31. Oxidation-
    reduction (redox) reactions: Electrons pass from one molecule to another
  32. anabolic reactions -
    tend to store energy, form larger molecules (ants build stuff up)
  33. catabolic reactions
    - tend to release energy, break molecules (cats break down mice)
  34. ETC:
    • membrane-bound carrier proteins in mitochondria and chloroplasts accept hydrogens from one another so they can be released as energy to do work.
    • Starts with high-energy electrons. Electrons are passed from carrier to carrier.
    • Ends with low-energy electrons and high-energy ATP
  35. Chemiosmosis:
    The formation of ATP by hydrogen ions moving thru the membrane
  36. Raw materials used for photosynthesis
    carbon dioxide and water
  37. equation for photosynthesis
    6CO2 + 6H2O + solar energy → C6H12O6 + 6O2
  38. equation for respiration
    C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
  39. photosynthesis stores energy in the
    chemical bonds of organic molecules like glucose
  40. photosynthesis takes place in the
  41. _______ are stacked in the chloroplasts
  42. the two processes of photosynthesis
    • light reactions
    • Calvin cycle
  43. light reactions
    • light is converted from solar energy into a temporary form of chemical energy (red and blue light are absorbed; NOT green)
    • takes place in the thylakoids
  44. Calvin Cycle
    • a series of chemical reactions that take the molecules from light reactions and convert them into molecules better suited to the long term storage of energy
    • takes place in the stroma
    • light is NOT necessary for these reactions
  45. 3 parts to calvin cycle
    • Fixation of carbon dioxide (fixing it into a carbohydrate)
    • Reduction of carbon dioxide (adding hydrogens to it) makes PGAL
    • Regeneration of RuBP
  46. different pigments in plants
    • chlorophyll a
    • chlorophyll b
    • Carotenes
    • Xanthophylls
  47. Electron pathways:
    • Noncyclic pathway: high energy electrons go thru electron transport chain and are not recycled. yeilds ATP + NADPH
    • Cyclic pathway: high energy electrons go thru electron transport chain and then is re-energized and is recycled yields ATP (only)
  48. C4 Photosynthesis:
     plants do not need light for photosynthesis because carbon fixation and calvin cycle occur at different times in different places
  49. CAM photosynthesis:
    live in hot environments. Fix carbon at night. Keep from drying out by dividing when they bring in carbon dioxide from when they release it to the calvin cycle
  50. Enzyme in photosynthesis
    is NADP
  51. Enzyme in aerobic respiration
    is NAD
  52. what color do chlorophylls absorb best?
    • blue and red
    • green
  53. Cellular respiration definition
    is the process cells use to obtain energy from the food molecules that have been brought into the cell, this energy is then stored in the form of the molecule ATP.
  54. simple explanation of what happens in cellular respiration
    Electrons are removed from substrates and received by oxygen, which combines with H+ to become water. Glucose is oxidized and O2 is reduced . Occurs around and in the mitochondria
  55. Cellular respiration occurs in three stages
    • 1. Glycolysis
    • 2. Kreb's Cycle
    • 3. Electron transport chain
  56. Glycolysis -
    glucose (a 6-carbon compound) is broken down into two molecules of pyruvic acid (a 3-carbon compound). This process occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell.
  57. Kreb's Cycle
    • acetyl coenzyme A (produced from pyruvic acid) is further broken down, and the hydrogen is removed from the carbon skeleton.
    • The hydrogens are picked up by the hydrogen carriers NAD and FAD and taken to the electron transport chain.
    • Kreb's cycle occurs in the mitochondrion.
  58. Electron Transport Chain -
    the hydrogen proton and electron are separated to form a chemical gradient. This provides the energy for the formation of ATP. Electron transport occurs in the mitochondrion.
  59. Net Production of ATP
    Kreb's cycle
    • Glycolysis - 2 ATP molecules
    • Kreb's Cycle - 2 ATP molecules
    • Electron Transport Chain - 32 ATP molecules
    • total: 36 molecules of ATP from the respiration of 1 glucose
  60. Fermentation
    • Occurs in cytoplasm outside the mitochondria; anaerobic
    • Advantage: quick burst of ATP for muscular activity
    • Disadvantages:Lactate and alcohol are toxic to cells. Yeast die from the alcohol they produce by fermentation
  61. which organelle in plants carries out photosynthesis
  62. which organelle in plants and animals is involved in carrying out cellular respiration
  63. C6H12O6 + 6O2 -------> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
    the energy in the equation for cellular respiration becomes chemical bond energy in what molecule