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- -adult cognition typically reflects an awareness of multiple truths, integrates logic w/ reality, and tolerates the gap btwn the ideal and real.
- -beyond piaget's formal operations
Perry's theory of Epistemic Cognition:
dualistic thinking, relativistic thinking, commitment w/in relativistic thinking.
- -according to this theory, college students move from dualistic thinking, dividing info into right and wrong, to relativistic thinking, awareness of multiple truths.
- -Eventually the most mature individuals progress to commitment within relativistic thinking, a perspective that synthesizes contradictions.
advances in epistemic cognition
-advance depend on gains in metacognition, and peer collaboration on challenging problems.
Labouvie Vief's theory: pragmatic though and cognitive affective complexity
- -theory suggests that the need to specialize motivates adults to progress from the ideal world of possibilties to pragmatic thought, which uses logic as a tool to solve real world problems & accepts contradiction, imperfection, and need to compromise.
- -as a result adults gain in cognitive affective complexity, coordination of pos and neg feelings into a complex and organized structure.
specialization in college and jobs leads to expertise which is necessary for creativity.
- -involves formulating new problems and questions.
- -although creativity tends to rise in early adulthood and to peak in the late 30's or early 40's its development varies across individuals and disciplines.
College experience and dropout
- -college involvement promotes gains in knowledge, reasoning, revised attitudes and values, enhanced self understanding, self esteem, and prepares for a high status career.
- -dropout rates are higher in less selective colleges and ethnic minority students from low ses families.
- -dropout especially likely during freshman year.
development of Vocational choice (3 periods -FTR)
- -fantasy period- children explore career options by fantasizing about them
- -tentative period- teens weigh different careers against their interests, abilities, and values.
- -realistic period- young people settle on a vocational category and then a specific occupation.
Early adulthood age range and mid adulthood range
Levinson's seasons (4 stages)
- young-old: new ways to be young and new ways to be old in positive way. example, letting go of physical attractiveness.
- destruction-creation: more focus on what they did that was destructive in the past and then creating something from that.
- masculintiy-feminity: striking a balance
- engagement-seperateness: balance of your own goals and others' goals.
- -most people become gparents between age 50 for women and 52 for men.
- -1/3 of our life will be spent as gparents.
fluid knowledge and crystallized
- crystallized - general world knowledge, skills vocab.
- fluid - spd of processing
- early if you have smoked or never had kids.
- increase in body temp.
socioemotional selectivity theory
younger adults have more time perspective vs older.
marrying before 23 usually bad and after 23 is better
- before 23 usually bad and after 23 is better
- -most divorces are in first 7 years.
- -first few years of 2nd marriage are most critical to determine divorce again
relationships u have as an individual (not just with people)
- early: dream about urself in real world.
- mid: mentor stage
- early 30s: exapands