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- -young adults from about 18-25 have not yet taken on adult roles. during these years they prolong identity development as they explore alternatives.
- -increased education required for entry level jobs, gains in economic prosperity, reduced need for young peoples labor, and gloablization have prompted the appearance of emerging adulthood.
- -emerging adults must adjust to dissapointments in love and work.
Erikson's theory Intimacy Vs. Isolation
- -young adults must resolve the conflict of intimacy vs isolation as they form a close relationship with a partner.
- -negative outcome is loneliness and self absorption.
Levinson's psychosocial theory
- -levinson described a series of eras, each consisting of a transition and a stable phase, in which people revise their life structure.
- -young adults usually construct a dream involving career for men and both career and marriage for women.
- -they form a relationship w/ a mentor to help them realize their dream.
- -in their 30's men tend to settle down but many women remain unsettled into middle adulthood.
Valliant's psychosocial theory
-valliant refined Erikson's stages portraying the 20s as devoted to intimacy. 30's to career consolidation, 40s to generativity and 50s and 60s to cultural values.
Valliant & Levinson's theories
-based on samples born in first few decades of 20th century. young adults development is more varied today than in past generations.
what is the social clock and how does it affect personality in adulthood?
- -social clock- age graded expectations for major life events.
- -conformity to or departure from the social clock can be a major source of personaily change into adulthood.
- -following a social clock grants confidence to young adults; deviating from can bring psychological distress.
Describe factors affecting mate selection (biological theory & social theory)
- -romantic partners tend to resemble one another in age, ethnicity, ses, religion, and various physical attributes.
- -the evolutionary theory suggests that women seek a mate with traits that help ensure childrens survival.
- -and men look for characteristics signaling sexual pleasure, and ability to bear children.
- -the social learning theory emphasizes that gender role influence criteria for mate selection.
- -research suggests that both biological and social forces are involved.
Triangular theory of love
- -According to the triangular theory of love, the balance among intimacy, passion, and commitment changes as romantic relationships move from the intense sexual attraction of passionate love toward more settled compassionate love.
- -commitment is key
- -womens same sex friendships tend to be more intimate than males.
- -after college other sex friendships tend to decline except for highly educated women who meet them in the workplace.
- -sibling relationships tend to resemble friendships especially among sisters with positive early experiences.
Family life cycle
- -a sequence of phases characterizing the development of most families around the world.
- Ex. leaving home, college, marriage.
Marriages (traditional & egalitarian)
- -americans marry at later ages than in past.
- -traditional marriage involves a clear division of husband and wifes roles. man is the head of household, primary responsibilty is the economic well being of his family. the woman devotes herself to caring for husband and children.
- -egalitarian marriage involves partners relating as equals, sharing power and authority. both try to balance time and energy spent at occupations, their children, and their relationship
unhappiness resulting from a gab btwn the social relationships we currently have and those we desire
Parenthood and Marriage
- -people are having children at later ages and less children than previous generations.
- -marriages that are good before childbirth tend to remain so after birth. but marriages that are not usually become more distressed.
- -shared caregiving predicts greater parental happiness.
Families with children
- -couples who work together as a coparenting team are more likely to gain in warm marital interaction and have children that develop well.
- -during teen years marital satisfaction often declines.
- -risen in recent years b/c of trend toward later marriage and a high divorce rate.
- -women tend to adjust better than men.
- -refers to lifestyle of unmarried couples who have a sexually intimate relationship and share a home.
- -risen dramatically even among well educated and high ses
- -subsequent marriages are more likely to fail
- -gays who cohabit report commitment equal to married couples
-voluntary childless adults tend to be well educated and career oriented and satisfied. but when childlessness is beyond a persons control it interferes with adjustment and life satisfaction
discuss high rates of divorce today and remarriage and factors that influence it
- -nearly half of us marriages dissolve. 2/3 remarry and many divorce again.
- -maladaptive communication, younger ages at marriage, family history of divorce, and the changing status of women all contribute.
- -finding new partners after divorce is especially important to men
- -stepparent-stepchild ties are difficult to form, especially for the stepmother or stepfather who has no children of their own.
- -childs acceptance is crucial
Never married single parents
- -especially high among low income black women in their 20s. unemployment among black men contributes to this trend.
- -difficult to overcome poverty
gay and lesbian parents
- -just as commited as heterosexual parents.
- -children are well adjusted like straight parent children
Career development in women and minorities
- -mens career paths are usually continuous but women are often discontinous b/c of child rearing and other family needs.
- -women and ethnic minorities are in all occupations but made limited progress in advancement.
- -lack of mentoring in traditionally male fields, stereotype of women as followers rather than leaders contribute
- -racial bias in the labor markets remains strong and ethnic women who succeed display high self efficacy