Embryology

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Author:
jvirbalas
ID:
225483
Filename:
Embryology
Updated:
2013-11-03 10:03:50
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Embryology
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Embryology
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  1. What ossicles are derived from Meckel's cartilage?  Reichert's?
    • Meckel's is derived from the 1st pharyngeal arch:¬†malleus head and neck, incus body and short process.
    • Reichert's from 2nd pharyngeal arch:¬†manubrium, lenticular process, stapes suprastructure
  2. What developmental anomaly results in dysphagia lusoria?
    • Aberrant right subclavian artery.
    • During development of the aortic arch, there is obliteration of the proximal, rather than distal, portion of the right fourth arch.
  3. Describe an anomalous in nominate artery.
    This occurs when the innominate artery originates from a more distal and leftward position on the arch. As it courses from left to right it crosses the trachea anteriorly and can cause tracheal compression, however in many patients it is asymptomatic.
  4. Describe arches, grooves, and pouches.
    • Arch: fingerlike masses of tissue, surface lined by ectoderm, and contains mesoderm. Derivatives will be structures made of muscle, bone, or other mesodermally-derived tissues.
    • Grooves: aka clefts, tissue that separate the arches, made up of ectoderm.
    • Pouches: outpouchings from the foregut region, made up of endoderm, derivatives will be glandular or associated with the digestive tract.
  5. Describe the artery, nerve and cartilage associated with the first arch.
    • Artery: maxillary artery, external carotid artier
    • Nerve: Trigeminal (V2 and V3)
    • Cartilage: maxilla, mandible (model for formation, dosn't actually form it), incus, malleus, Meckel's cartilage
  6. Describe the artery, nerve and cartilage associated with the second arch.
    • Artery: stapedial artery, hyoid artery
    • Nerve: facial nerve
    • Cartilage: stapes, styloid process, hyoid (lesser horn and upper part of body), Reichert's cartilage
  7. Describe the artery, nerve and cartilage associated with the third arch.
    • Artery: common carotid, internal carotid
    • Nerve: glossopharyngeal
    • Cartilage: hyoid (greater horn and lower part of body)
  8. Describe the artery, nerve and cartilage associated with the fourth arch.
    • Artery: right-subclavian artery; left-aortic arch
    • Nerve: vagus, superior laryngeal
    • Cartilage: thyroid cartilage, epiglottic cartilage
  9. Describe the artery, nerve and cartilage associated with the sixth arch.
    • Artery: right-pulmonary artery; left-pulmonary artery and ductus arteriosus
    • Nerve: vagus, recurrent laryngea
    • Cartilage: cricoid, arytenoid, corniculate
  10. What is the volume of the maxillary sinus at birth?
    6-8 mL
  11. At what age may the sphenoid begin to pneumatize?
    2 years. Matures by 14 years.
  12. What percentage of adults have an aplastic frontal sinus?
    • 15% unilateral
    • 5% bilateral
  13. What aspect of the auricular cartilage is formed by each of the 6 hillocks of His?
    • 1: Tragus
    • 2-3: helix
    • 4-5: antihelix
    • 6: antitragus
  14. Name two craniofacial syndromes related to abnormalities of the first and second branchial arches
    • Treacher Collins
    • Goldenhar (hemifacial microsomia, auriculo-oculo-vertebral syndrome)

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