Human Anatomy

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Author:
JLonghurst
ID:
22554
Filename:
Human Anatomy
Updated:
2010-06-10 23:57:50
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Back Muscles
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Description:
The attachments, actions, and innervations of the muscles of the back
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  1. Trapezius: Descending Part Attachments
    Medial Third Nuchal line, External Occipital Protuberance, Nuchal Ligament (On the spinous processes from External Occipital Protuberance to C7)

    Lateral third of clavicle
  2. Trapezius: Descending Part Innervations
    Spinal Accessory Nerve (CN XI) for motor. C3, C4 spinal nerves for pain and procioceptive fibers
  3. Trapezius: Descending Part Actions
    Elevates scapula. When combined with Ascending Part, rotates glenoid cavity superiorly
  4. Trapezius: Ascending Part Attachments
    Spinous Processes C7-T12

    Spine of the Scapula
  5. Trapezius: Ascending Part Innervations
    Spinal Accessory Nerve (CN XI) for motor. C3, C4 spinal nerves for pain and procioceptive fibers
  6. Trapezius: Ascending Part Actions
    Depresses scapula. When combined with Descending Part, rotates glenoid cavity superiorly
  7. Trapezius: Middle Part Attachments
    Spinous Processes C7-T12

    Acromion
  8. Trapezius: Middle Part Innervations
    Spinal Accessory Nerve (CN XI) for motor. C3, C4 spinal nerves for pain and procioceptive fibers
  9. Trapezius: Middle Part Actions
    Retracts Scapula
  10. Latissimus Dorsi Attachments
    Spinous processes of inferior 6 thoracic vertebrae, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, and inferior 3 or 4 ribs

    Floor of intertubercular sulcus of humerus
  11. Latissimus Dorsi Innervations
    Thoracodorsal nerve (C6, C7, C8)
  12. Latissimus Dorsi Actions
    Extends, adducts, and medially rotates humerus. Raises body toward arms during climbing.
  13. Rhomboid Minor Attachments
    Nuchal Ligamnet, Spinous processes of C7 and T1

    Smooth triangular area at medial end of scapular spine
  14. Rhomboid Minor Innervations
    Dorsal Scapular nerve (C4, C5)
  15. Rhomboid Minor Actions
    Retracts scapula and rotates it to depress gleniod cavity. Fix scapula to thoracic wall.
  16. Rhomboid Major Attachments
    Spinous processes of T2-T5 vertebrae

    To inferior angle of scapula at level of spine
  17. Rhomboid Major Innervations
    Dorsal Scapular nerve (C4, C5)
  18. Rhomboid Major Actions
    Retracts scapula and rotates it to depress gleniod cavity. Fix scapula to thoracic wall.
  19. Levator Scapulae Attachments
    Posterior Tubercles of transverse processes 0f C1-C4 vertebrae

    Medial border of scapula superior to root of scapular spine (superior angle)
  20. Levator Scapulae Innervations
    Dorsal Scapular (C5) and cervical (C3, C4) nerves
  21. Levator Scapulae Actions
    Elevates scapula and tilts its glenoid cavity inferiorly by rotating scapula
  22. Deltoid: Clavicle Part
    Proximal Attachment
    Lateral third of the clavicle
  23. Deltoid: Clavicle Part
    Distal Attachment
    Deltoid tuberosity of the humerus
  24. Deltoid: Clavicle Part
    Innervation
    Axillary Nerve (C5, C6)
  25. Deltoid: Clavicl Part
    Actions
    Flexes and medially rotates arm
  26. Deltoid: Acromial Part
    Proximal Attachment
    Acromion
  27. Deltoid: Acromial Part
    Distal Attachment
    Deltoid tuberosity of the humerus
  28. Deltoid: Acromial Part
    Innervations
    Axillary Nerve (C5, C6)
  29. Deltoid: Acromial Part
    Actions
    Abducts arm
  30. Deltoid: Spinal Part
    Proximal Attachment
    Spine of scapula
  31. Deltoid: Spinal Part
    Distal Attachment
    Deltoid tuberosity of the humerus
  32. Deltoid: Spinal Part
    Innervations
    Axillary Nerve (C5, C6)
  33. Deltoid: Spinal Part
    Actions
    Extends and laterally rotates arm
  34. Supraspinatus: Proximal Attachment
    Supraspinous fossa of scapula
  35. Supraspinatus: Distal Attachment
    Superior facet of greater tubercle of humerus
  36. Supraspinatus: Innervations
    Suprascapular nerve (C4, C5, C6)
  37. Supraspinatus: Actions
    Abduction. Rotator Cuff Muscle
  38. Infraspinatus: Proximal Attachment
    Infraspinous fossa of scapula
  39. Infraspinatus: Distal Attachment
    Middle facet of greater tubercle of humerus
  40. Infraspinatus: Innervations
    Suprascapular nerve (C5, C6)
  41. Infraspinatus: Actions
    Laterally rotates arm. Rotator Cuff Muscle
  42. Teres Minor: Proximal Attachments
    Middle part of lateral border of scapula
  43. Teres Minor: Distal Attachments
    Inferior facet of greater tubercle of humerus
  44. Teres Minor: Innervations
    Axillary Nerve (C5, C6)
  45. Teres Minor: Actions
    Laterally rotates arm. Rotator Cuff Muscle
  46. Teres Major: Proximal Attachment
    Posterior surface of inferior angle of scapula
  47. Teres Major: Distal Attachments
    Medial lip of intertubercular sulcus of humerus
  48. Teres Major: Innervation
    Lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)
  49. Teres Major: Actions
    Adducts and medially rotates arm
  50. Subscapularis: Proximal Attachment
    Subscapular fossa (Most of anterior surface of scapula)
  51. Subscapularis: Distal Attachments
    Lesser tubercle of humerus
  52. Subscapularis: Innervations
    Upper and lower subscapular nerves (C5, C6, C7)
  53. Subscapularis: Actions
    Medially rotates arm. Rotator Cuff Muscle
  54. Splenius Capitis Proximal Attachment
    Nuchal Ligament and spinous processes of C7-T3/T4 vertebrae
  55. Splenius Capitis: Distal Attachments
    Fibers run superolaterally to mastoid process and lateral 3rd of superior nuchal line
  56. Splenius Capitis: Innervations
    Posterior rami of spinal nerves
  57. Splenius Capitis: Actions
    Alone: Lateral flex neck and rotate head to side. Together: Extend head and neck
  58. Splenius Cervicis: Proximal Attachments
    Nuchal Ligament and spinous processes of C7-T3/T4 vertebrae
  59. Splenius Cervicis: Distal Attachments
    Tubercle of transverse processes of C1-C3/C4 vertebrae
  60. Splenius Cervicis: Innervations
    Posterior rami of spinal nerves
  61. Splenius Cervicis: Actions
    Alone: Lateral flex neck and rotate head to side. Together: Extend head and neck
  62. Iliocostalis: Proximal Attachments
    Arises by a broad tendon from posterior part of iliac crest, posterior surface of sacrum, sacroiliac ligaments, sacral and inferior lumbar spinous processes, and supraspinous ligament
  63. Iliocostalis: Distal Attachments
    Lumborum, thoracis, cervicis. Fibers run superiorly to angles of lower rins and cervicle transverse processes
  64. Iliocostalis: Innervations
    Posterior rami of spinal nerves
  65. Iliocostalis: Actions
    Bilaterally: Extend vertebral column and head; as back is flexed, control movement via eccentric contraction. Unilaterally: Laterally flex vertebral column
  66. Longissimus: Proximal Attachments
    Arises by a broad tendon from posterior part of iliac crest, posterior surface of sacrum, sacroiliac ligaments, sacral and inferior lumbar spinous processes, and supraspinous ligament
  67. Longissimus: Distal Attachments
    Thoracis, cervicis, capitis. Fibers run superiorly to ribs between tubercles and angles to transverse processes in thoracis and cervical regions, and to mastoid process
  68. Longissimus: Innervations
    Posterior rami of spinal nerves
  69. Longissimus: Actions
    Bilaterally: Extend vertebral column and head; as back is flexed, control movement via eccentric contraction. Unilaterally: Laterally flex vertebral column
  70. Spinalis: Proximal Attachment
    Arises by a broad tendon from posterior part of iliac crest, posterior surface of sacrum, sacroiliac ligaments, sacral and inferior lumbar spinous processes, and supraspinous ligament
  71. Spinalis: Distal Attachments
    Thoracis, cervicis, capitis. Fibers run superiorly to spinous processes in the upper thoracic regions and to cranium
  72. Spinalis: Innervations
    Posterior rami of spinal nerves
  73. Spinalis: Actions
    Bilaterally: Extend vertebral column and head; as back is flexed, control movement via eccentric contraction. Unilaterally: Laterally flex vertebral column
  74. Semispinalis: Proximal Attachments
    Transverse processes of C4-T12 vertebrae
  75. Semispinalis: Distal Attachments
    Thoracis, cervicis, capitis. Occipital bone and spinous processes in thoracis and cervical regions, spanning 4-6 segments
  76. Semispinalis: Innervations
    Posterior rami of spinal nerves
  77. Semispinalis: Actions
    Extension. Extends head and thoracic and cervical regions of vertebral column and rotates contralaterally
  78. Multifidis: Proximal Attachments
    Posterior sacrum, posterior iliac spine, aponeurosis of erector spinae, sacroiliac ligaments, mammillary processes of lumbar vertebrae, transverse processes of T1-T3, articular processes of C4-C7
  79. Multifidis: Distal Attachments
    Fibes pass entire length of spinous processes, located 2-4 segments superior to proximal attachment
  80. Multifidis: Innervations
    Posterior rami of spinal nerves
  81. Multifidis: Actions
    Extension. Stabilizes vertebrae during local movements of vertebral column
  82. Rotares: Proximal Attachments
    Transverse processes of vertebrae, developed best in thoracic region
  83. Rotares: Distal Attachments
    Junction of lamina and transverse process or spinous process of vertebra immediately (brevis) or 2 segments (longus) superior to vertebra of attachment
  84. Rotares: Innervations
    Posterior rami of spinal nerves
  85. Rotares: Actions
    Extension. Stabilize vertebrae and assist with local extension and rotary movements of vertebral column. May function as organs of proprioception
  86. Rectus Capitis Posterior Major: Proximal Attachments
    Spinous process of vertebra C2
  87. Rectus Capitis Posterior Major: Distal Attachments
    Lateral part of inferior nuchal line of occipital bone
  88. Rectus Capitis Posterior Major: Innervations
    Suboccipital nerve (C1)
  89. Rectus Capitis Posterior Major
    Extension and rotation of head
  90. Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor: Proximal Attachments
    Posterior tubercle of posterior arch of C1
  91. Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor: Distal Attachments
    Medial part of inferior nuchal line
  92. Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor: Innervations
    Suboccipital nerve (C1)
  93. Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor: Actions
    Extension of Head
  94. Obliques Capitis Inferior: Proximal Attachments
    Posterior tubercle of posterior arch of C2
  95. Obliques Capitis Inferior: Distal Attachments
    Transvers process of verteba C1
  96. Obliques Capitis Inferior: Innervations
    Suboccipital nerve (C1)
  97. Obliques Capitis Inferior: Actions
    Rotation of head
  98. Obliques Capitis Superior: Proximal Attachments
    Transverse process of vertebra C1
  99. Obliques Capitis Superior: Distal Attachments
    Occipital bone between superior and inferior nuchal lines
  100. Obliques Capitis Superior: Innervations
    Suboccipital nerve (C1)
  101. Obliques Capitis Superior: Actions
    Extension of head

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