Chapter 7 - Cognition and Language

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Chapter 7 - Cognition and Language
2013-07-07 15:14:03
psychology vocab

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  1. Thinking
    The manipulation of mental representations of information.
  2. Mental Images
    Representations in the mind of an object or event.
  3. Concepts
    A mental grouping of similar objects, events, or people.
  4. Prototypes
    Typical, highly representative examples of a concept.
  5. Syllogistic Reasoning
    Formal reasoning in which people draw a conclusion from a set of assumptions.
  6. Algorithm
    A rule that, if applied appropriately, guarantees a solution to a problem.
  7. Heuristic
    A thinking strategy that may lead us to a solution to a problem or decision, but - unlike algorithms - may sometimes lead to errors.
  8. Means-ends Analysis
    Involves repeated tests for differences between the desired outcome and what currently exists.
  9. Insight
    A sudden awareness of the relationships among various elements that had previously appeared to be independent of one another.
  10. Functional Fixedness
    The tendency to think of an object only in terms of its typical use.
  11. Mental Set
    The tendency for old patterns of problem solving to persist.
  12. Confirmation Bias
    The tendency to seek out and weight more heavily information that supports one's initial hypotheses and to ignore contradictory information that supports alternative hypotheses or solutions.
  13. Creativity
    The ability to generate original ideas or solve problems in novel ways.
  14. Divergent Thinking
    The ability to generate unusual, yet nonetheless appropriate, responses to problems or questions.
  15. Convergent Thinking
    The ability to produce responses that are based primarily on knowledge and logic.
  16. Language
    The communication of information through symbols arranged according to systematic rules.
  17. Grammar
    The system of rules that determine how our thoughts can be expressed.
  18. Phonology
    The study of the smallest units of speech, called phonemes.
  19. Phonemes
    The smallest units of speech.
  20. Syntax
    Ways in which words and phrases can be combined to form sentences.
  21. Semantics
    The rules governing the meaning of words and sentences.
  22. Babble
    Meaningless speechlike sounds made by children from around the age of 3 months and through 1 year.
  23. Telegraphic Speech
    Sentences in which words not critical to the message are left out.
  24. Overgeneralization
    The phenomenon by which children apply language rules even when the application results in an error.
  25. Learning-theory approach (to language development)
    The theory that language acquisition follows the principles of reinforcement and conditioning.
  26. Nativist Approach (to language development)
    The theory that a genetically determined, innate mechanism directs language development.
  27. Universal Grammar
    Noam Chomsky's theory that all the world's languages share a common underlying structure.
  28. Language-Acquisition Device
    A neural system of the brain hypothesized by Noam Chomsky to permit understanding of language.
  29. Interactionist Approach (to language development)
    The view that language development is produced through a combination of genetically determined predispositions and environmental circumstances that help teach language.
  30. Linguistic-Relativity Hypothesis
    The notion that language shapes and may determine the way people in a particular culture perceive and understand the world.