Cardiovascular Drug Defiinitions

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ctbty
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Cardiovascular Drug Defiinitions
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2013-07-14 20:26:52
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  1. glycoside
    a compound that contains a sugar as part of the molecule
  2. MOA
    mechanisms of action
  3. mechanism
    a combination of things that serve a common function
  4. inotropic
    affects the force of muscular contractions
  5. chronotropic
    affects the rate of rhythmic movements, like the heartbeat
  6. impulse
    a sudden pushing force
  7. SA node
    • aka sinoatrial node, sinoauricular node, and sinus node
    • a small mass of cardiac muscle fibers
    • located in the posterior wall of the right atrium
    • acts as the pacemaker
  8. vagus nerve
    the tenth cranial nerve
  9. cranial nerves
    the twelve pairs of nerves that are connected with the brain
  10. compensatory tachycardia
    when the heart goes into a state of tachycardia in order to compensate for something else happening to the body, like an overflow of blood to an organ
  11. dromotropic
    affects the conductivity of a nerve fiber
  12. conduction
    when a body transmits a flow of electricity or heat
  13. nerve fiber
    the axon of a nerve cell
  14. axon
    the long portion of a neuron that conducts impulses away from the cell body
  15. AV node
    • aka atrioventricular node
    • a collection of cardiac fibers
    • located at the base of the interatrial septum
    • transmits the cardiac impulse initiated by the SA node
  16. interatrial septum
    the wall between the atria of the heart
  17. CHF
    congestive heart failure
  18. therapeutic range
    the range of concentrations that a drug is effective with minimal toxicity
  19. apical
    pertaining to an apex
  20. apex
    the tip of a body, organ, or part
  21. HCP
    healthcare provider
  22. predispose
    to make susceptible
  23. susceptible
    likely to be affected with a disease, infection, or condition
  24. toxicity
    the quality of being poisonous
  25. hypokalemia
    low potassium levels in blood
  26. hypercalcemia
    a high level of calcium in the blood
  27. hypoxia
    insufficient levels of oxygen in blood or tissue
  28. gluconate
    the salts of gluconic acid
  29. gluconic acid
    an acid formed from the oxidation of glucose and other sugars
  30. antiarrhythmic
    preventing or alleviating arrhythmias
  31. calcium salts
    substances used to replenish calcium in the body
  32. calcium channel blockers
    drugs that relax blood vessels and lower blood pressure
  33. adrenergic
    activated by or capable of releasing epinephrine or an epinephrine-like substance, especially in the sympathetic nervous system
  34. adrenaline (epinephrine)
    • a chemical that narrows blood vessels and opens airways in the lungs
    • can reverse severe low blood pressure, wheezing, severe skin itching, hives, and other symptoms of an allergic reaction injections of this are used to treat anaphylaxis
  35. anaphylaxis
    rapidly progressing, life-threatening allergic reaction
  36. anticholinergics
    • treats COPD by keeping muscles in throat from constricting
    • keeps airways open
  37. parasympathetic nervous system
    regulates activities that conserve and restore energy
  38. sympathetic nervous system
    dominates in stressful situations causing a "fight or flight" response
  39. amidrine
    usually used to treat migraines
  40. antiacids
    • drugs that neutralize acidity
    • treat heart burn, ulcers, etc.
  41. amiodrone
    helps keep heart beat steady for people with dysrhythmias
  42. PVC
    premature ventricular contractions
  43. SVT
    supraventricular tachycardia
  44. tinnitus
    hearing ringing, buzzing, or other sounds without an external cause
  45. GI
    gastrointestinal
  46. gastrointestinal
    dealing with the stomach and intestines
  47. hypotension
    low blood pressure
  48. containdications
    patient should avoid *medicine* if they have *disease*
  49. procaine
    a local anesthetic
  50. heart block
    refers to a delay in the normal flow of electrical impulses that cause the heart to beat
  51. HA
    heartache
  52. cardiogenic shock
    a condition where a suddenly weakened heart isn't able to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs
  53. sick sinus syndrome
    • a disorder where the SA node fails to signal
    • properly, resulting in changes in the heart rate
  54. interactions
    the way drugs work with other drugs, foods, and beverages
  55. cimetidine
    used to treat gastric ulcers
  56. warfarin
    a blood thinner
  57. erythromycin
    an antibiotic
  58. dilantin
    used to control seizures
  59. ischemia
    • an insufficient supply of blood to an organ
    • usually due to a blocked artery
  60. thrombophlebitis
    • aka phlebitis, phlebothrombosis, and venous thrombosis
    • when a blood clot forms inside a vein at the site of an inflammation
  61. DVT
    • deep venous/vein thrombosis
    • a blood clot in a major vein that usually develops in the legs and/or pelvis
  62. pulmonary embolism (PE)
    an obstruction of a blood vessel in the lungs, usually due to a blood clot, that blocks a coronary artery
  63. thromboembolic
    pertaining to thromboembolism
  64. thromboembolism
    occlusion of a blood vessel due to a thrombus
  65. thrombus
    a stationary clot formed in a blood vessel or in a chamber of the heart
  66. embolization
    the process or condition of becoming an embolus
  67. embolus
    a thrombus that has moved through the bloodstream
  68. fibrin
    • an insoluble protein that is essential to the clotting of blood
    • formed from fibrinogen by action of thrombin
  69. clotting mechanism
    • one of three mechanisms that reduces the loss of blood from broken blood vessels
    • the three mechanisms are vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, and blood clotting (coagulation)
  70. thrombin
    • an enzyme formed in the blood during the clotting process
    • causes fibrinogen to change to fibrin
  71. hematuria
    the presence of blood in the urine
  72. alopecia
    hair loss
  73. Pregnancy Cat. C.
    • Pregnancy Category C n
    • no adequate human or animal studies, or adverse fetal effects in animal studies but no available human data
  74. subcutaneously
    beneath the skin
  75. partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
    a blood test that looks at how long it takes for blood to clot
  76. antagonist/antidote
    a substance that counteracts the actions of another
  77. protamine sulfate
    a drug that reverses the anticoagulant effects of heparin by binding to it
  78. anticoagulant
    a substance that prevents the clotting of blood
  79. ASA
    • aka aspirin
    • acetylsalicylic acid
  80. NSAIDs
    • nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs
    • a large number of drugs exerting anti-inflammatory actions
    • examples include aspirin and ibuprofen
  81. prosthetic valves prophylaxis
    a way to prevent infections to artificial valves
  82. hepatic
    pertaining to the liver
  83. synthesis
    the combining of separate elements or substances to make a whole
  84. coagulation factors
    substances in the blood that are essential to the clotting process
  85. coagulation factor II
    prothrombin (a plasma protein that converts to thrombin)
  86. coagulation factor VII
    proconvertin (helps factor III activate factor X)
  87. coagulation factor III
    tissue thromboplastin (helps factor VII activate factor X)
  88. coagulation factor X
    stuart factor (activates factor II)
  89. coagulation factor IX
    plasma thromboplastin antecedent (activates factor X)
  90. extrinsic
    coming or operating from outside.
  91. lipoprotein
    any of a group of soluble proteins that combine with and transport fat or other lipids in the blood plasma
  92. lipids
    any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives
  93. derivative
    something that is based on another source
  94. INR
    • international normalized ratio
    • a comparative rating of a patient's prothrombin time (PT) ratio, used as a standard for monitoring the effects of warfarin
  95. prothrombin time (PT)
    a blood test that assesses the clotting ability of blood
  96. angina
    chest pain or discomfort due to coronary heart disease
  97. thrombocytopenia
    • aka platelets
    • an abnormal drop in the number of blood cells involved in forming blood clots
  98. antiplatelet
    • acting against or destroying blood platelets
    •  
  99. CVA
    • stroke
    • cerebrovascular accident
  100. TIA
    • aka a mini-stroke
    • transient ischemic attack
    • a brief attack (an hour or less)
  101. cerebral
    pertaining to the brain
  102. hemorrhagic stroke
    caused by a weakened vessel that ruptures and bleeds into the surrounding brain
  103. ileofemoral
    relating to the ilium and the femur.
  104. ilium
    • the uppermost and largest bone of the pelvis
    • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f2/Pelvis_diagram.png
  105. IV catheters
    used for administration of medication and fluids directly into your veins
  106. plasminogen
    the inactive precursor of plasmin, occurring in plasma and converted to plasmin by the action of urokinase.
  107. protelytic
    Relating to, characterized by, or promoting proteolysis.
  108. proteolysis
    • the splitting of proteins hydrolysis into simpler, soluble substances, as occurs in digestion.
  109. hydrolysis
    the chemical alteration or decomposition of a compound with water.
  110. Urokinase
    An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin and is produced in the kidney, excreted in the urine, and used to dissolve blood clots. Also called plasminogen activator.
  111. catalyze
    • To modify, especially to increase, the rate of a chemical reaction
  112. streptokinase.
    produces fibrinolysis by binding to plasminogen and causing its conversion to plasmin; used as a thrombolytic agent.
  113. fibrinolysis
    the breakdown of fibrin
  114. myocardium
    the middle and thickest layer of the heart wall, composed of cardiac muscle.
  115. nitrates
    any salt of nitric acid; organic nitrates are used in the treatment of angina pectoris.
  116. nitric acid
    a colorless, highly corrosive liquid that may give off suffocating brown fumes of nitrogen dioxide on exposure to air.
  117. angina pectoris
    AKA angina
  118. Nitroglycerine
    A thick, pale yellow liquid that is explosive on concussion or exposure to sudden heat, used as a vasodilator in medicine.
  119. vasodilator
    causing dilatation of blood vessels.
  120. Nitro-Bid
    trademark for a coronary vasodilator (nitroglycerin).
  121. Isordil
    trademark for an antianginal agent (isosorbide dinitrate).
  122. PVD
    • peripheral vascular disease; a narrowing of blood vessels that restricts blood flow. It mostly occurs in the legs, but is sometimes seen in the arms.
    •  
  123. afterload
    the force against which cardiac muscle shortens
  124. systolic
    The phase of blood circulation in which the heart's pumping chambers (ventricles) are actively pumping blood. The ventricles are squeezing (contracting) forcefully, and the pressure against the walls of the arteries is at its highest.
  125. BP
    blood pressure
  126. preload
    • The load to which a muscle is subjected before shortening.
    •  
  127. transdermal
    entering through the skin
  128. PO
    by mouth
  129. sublingual
    under the tongue
  130. acute
    having severe symptoms and a short course.
  131. antihypertensives
    Medications used to treat high blood pressure.
  132. haldol
    • A trademark for the drug haloperidol. used to treat schizophrenia
    •  
  133. anticholinergics
    used to relieve cramps or spasms of the stomach, intestines, and bladder.
  134. SL
    sublingual
  135. Vasospasm
    • A sudden constriction of a blood vessel that reduces the blood flow. Also called angiospasm.
  136. cardiogenic shock
    shock resulting from inadequate cardiac function, as from myocardial infarction or mechanical obstruction; characteristics include hypovolemia, hypotension, cold skin, weak pulse, and confusion.
  137. hypovolemia
    diminished volume of circulating blood in the body.
  138. adjunct
    an accessory or auxiliary agent or measure.
  139. sequester
    to detach or separate abnormally a small portion from the whole.
  140. LDL
    low-density lipoprotein; A blood-plasma lipoprotein that is high in cholesterol and low in protein content and that carries cholesterol to cells and tissue; also called bad cholesterol.
  141. lipoprotein
    Any of a group of conjugated proteins that have at least one lipid component and are the principal means by which lipids are transported in the blood.
  142. bile acid
    Any of several acids formed in the liver that commonly occur in the bile in combination with glycine or taurine as sodium salts.
  143. bile
    a fluid secreted by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and discharged into the small intestine; aids in the emulsification, digestion, and absorption of fat
  144. secrete
    To generate and separate a substance from cells or bodily fluids
  145. emulsification
    the breakdown of large fat globules into smaller, uniformly distributed particles
  146. glycine
    • a nonessential amino acid
    • used as a nutrient and dietary supplement
  147. amino acid
    Amino acids are small molecules that are used as building blocks for all proteins.
  148. taurine
    an amino acid often found in nerve and muscle tissues.
  149. S/S
    symptoms and signs
  150. Fibric Acid Derivatives
    Fibric acid derivatives or fibrates are regarded as broad-spectrum lipid lowering drugs.
  151. Lopid (gemfibrozil)
    helps reduce cholesterol and triglycerides (fatty acids) in the blood.
  152. triglycerides
    the most abundant fatty molecule in most organisms.
  153. VLDL
    large lipoproteins rich in triglycerides
  154. HDL
    high-density lipoprotein: a circulating lipoprotein that picks up cholesterol in the arteries and deposits it in the liver for reprocessing or excretion.
  155. Myalgia
    Muscular pain or tenderness
  156. hyperglycemia
    an abnormally high level of glucose in the blood.
  157. HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (statins)
    drugs that interfere with the biosynthesis of cholesterol; used to treat hypercholesterolemia.
  158. biosynthesis
    Formation of a chemical compound by a living organism. Also called biogenesis.
  159. hypercholesterolemia
    An excess of cholesterol in the blood.
  160. hypertriglyceridemia
    denotes high blood levels of triglycerides
  161. Pathophysiology
    the branch of medicine which deals with any disturbances of body functions, caused by disease
  162. diuresis
    Urine production, as an aspect of fluid balance (fluid volume)
  163. PVR
    pulmonary vascular resistance; the resistance offered by the vasculature of the lungs that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system
  164. Central Sympatholytic (Central Acting Adrenergic Inhibitors)
    Central-acting agents lower your heart rate and reduce your blood pressure. central adrenergic inhibitors, treat several conditions, including high blood pressure, drug and alcohol withdrawal, and hot flashes.
  165. alpha receptors
    tissue receptors which respond well to epinephrine and norepinephrine but less so to isoprotenerol.
  166. adrenergic
    having to do with adrenaline and epinephrine
  167. vasodilatation
    increase in the caliber of blood vessels (caliber is the diameter of the opening of a tube, in this case a blood vessel)
  168. prophylaxis
    a measure taken to maintain health and prevent the spread of disease.
  169. CNS
    central nervous system; The part of the nervous system that includes the brain and the spinal cord.
  170. Alpha-Adrenergic Blockers
    drugs prescribed for hypertension that impede alpha receptors
  171. impede
    to slow down or block
  172. alpha receptors
    any of the postulated adrenergic components of receptor tissues that respond to norepinephrine and to various blocking agents.
  173. postulated
    anything assumed or taken for granted.
  174. receptors
    a molecule on the surface or within a cell that recognizes and binds with specific molecules, producing a specific effect in the cell
  175. alpha 1 adrenergic receptors
    The primary effect is on smooth muscle, which it mainly constricts
  176. vascular smooth muscle
    refers to the particular type of smooth muscle found within, and composing the majority of the wall of blood vessels.
  177. bph
    Benign prostatic hyperplasia; refers to the increase in size of the prostate in middle-aged and elderly men
  178. orthostasis
    head rush or a dizzy spell, is a form of hypotension in which a person's blood pressure suddenly falls when the person stands up.
  179. Beta-Adrenergic Blockers
    any of various drugs used in treating hypertension or arrhythmia
  180. beta 1 receptors
    affects the resting heart rate and can be involved in heart failure.
  181. beta 2 receptors
    associated with nocturnal asthma, obesity and type 2 diabetes.
  182. COP
    colloid osmotic pressure; a form of osmotic pressure exerted by proteins in a blood vessel's plasma (blood/liquid) that usually tends to pull water into the circulatory system
  183. osmotic pressure
    Osmotic pressure is the energy driving osmosis and is important for living organisms because it allows water and nutrients dissolved in water to pass through cell membranes.
  184. osmosis
    The movement of a solvent through a membrane separating two solutions of different concentrations. The solvent from the side of weaker concentration usually moves to the side of the stronger concentration, diluting it, until the concentrations of the solutions are equal on both sides of the membrane.  The pressure exerted by the molecules of the solvent on the membrane they pass through is called osmotic pressure.
  185. renin
    a proteolytic enzyme secreted by the kidneys, which plays an important part in the maintenance of blood pressure
  186. proteolytic enzyme
    any enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of proteins into smaller peptide fractions and amino acids by a process known as proteolysis
  187. COPD
    • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
    • A chronic lung disease, such as asthma or emphysema, in which breathing becomes slowed or forced.
    •  
  188. bronchospasms
    spasmodic contraction of the muscular lining of the bronchi, as in asthma, causing difficulty in breathing.
  189. 1st degree heart block
    In first-degree AV block, the impulse conducting from atria to ventricles through the AV node is delayed and travels slower than normal.
  190. ACE Inhibitors
    • Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; treats hypertension 
    •  
  191. inhibitor
    a substance that retards or stops a chemical reaction.
  192. angiotensin
    Any of three polypeptide hormones, one of which is a powerful vasoconstrictor, that function in the body in controlling arterial pressure.
  193. vasoconstrictor
    any of various agents, as certain nerves or drugs, that narrow blood vessels and thereby maintain or increase blood pressure.
  194. polypeptide
    A peptide, such as a small protein, containing many molecules of amino acids, typically between 10 and 100.
  195. peptide
    A chemical compound that is composed of a chain of two or more amino acids and is usually smaller than a protein.
  196. angiotensin I
    a physiologically inactive form of angiotensin that is the precursor to angiotensin II
  197. physiologically inactive
    a part of the body that is basically broken
  198. angiotensin II
    a potent vasopressor agent formed from angiotensin I
  199. vasopressor
    any hormone or drug that acts as a vasoconstrictor and increases blood pressure and heart rate.
  200. ejection fraction
    a measurement of how well your heart is pumping.
  201. angioneurotic edema
    recurrent large circumscribed areas of subcutaneous edema; onset is sudden and it disappears within 24 hours; seen mainly in young women, often as an allergic reaction to food or drugs
  202. circumscribe
    To limit narrowly; restrict.
  203. edema
    An excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue spaces or a body cavity.
  204. serous
    Containing, secreting, or resembling serum.
  205. hyperkalemia
    an abnormally high concentration of potassium in the blood.
  206. ARF
    acute renal failure; renal failure associated with burns or other trauma or with acute infection or obstruction of the urinary tract
  207. impairment
    the occurrence of a change for the worse
  208. vasodilators
    A drug that dilates a blood vessel.
  209. arteriole
    One of the small terminal branches of an artery, especially one that connects with a capillary.
  210. terminal
    Of, at, relating to, or forming a limit, boundary, extremity, or end.
  211. dilator
    A muscle that dilates a body part, such as a blood vessel or the pupil of the eye.
  212. arteriolar dilator
    a muscle that dilates and arteriole
  213. venous dilators
    a muscle that dilates a vein
  214. compensatory mechanisms
    the manner of combination of parts, processes, etc., in order to make up for a loss of something
  215. smooth muscles
    Muscles that surround the linings of the digestive system, airways, and circulatory system.
  216. cardiac muscles
    the muscle of the heart
  217. coronary artery spasm
    A sudden constriction of a coronary artery that deprives the heart muscle of blood and oxygen
  218. SA node
    sinoatrial node; The mass of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that normally acts as the "pacemaker" of the heart
  219. AV node
    atrioventricular node; Highly specialized area of the heart muscle which transmits electrical impulses.
  220. peripheral
    pertaining to the outside, surface, or surrounding area of an organ
  221. SAH
    Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Loss of blood into the subarachnoid space, the fluid-filled area that surrounds the brain tissue.
  222. hemorrhage
    the escape of blood from the vessels
  223. cerebral spasm
    the constricted physical state of the blood vessels in the brain
  224. erythropoesis
    The formation or production of red blood cells
  225. RBC
    red blood cells
  226. gold standard
    the best, the most reliable
  227. iron deficiency anemia
    a lack of red blood cells caused by having too little iron in the body
  228. PUD
    Peptic ulcer disease; A stomach disorder marked by corrosion of the stomach lining due to the acid in the digestive juices.
  229. IM
    intramuscular; within a muscle
  230. Z tract
    a technique in which the skin and subcutaneous tissue are displaced laterally before inserting the needle intramuscularly; used to prevent leakage along the track of the needle and consequent tissue irritation.
  231. displace laterally
    removal from the normal position to a side position; stretch the skin before inserting needle and don't let go until needle has been pulled out
  232. track of a needle
    a mark left behind on skin from a needle injection
  233. dorsolateral
    pertaining to the back and the side.
  234. air lock
    • The air lock technique prevents medication from leaking into the subcutaneous tissues and skin surface as the needle is withdrawn, thereby preventing irritation and staining of tissues. Withdraw desired volume of medication into syringe.
    • Draw in an additional 0.2 ml of air.Insert the needle at a 90-degree angle.
  235. folic acid
    help the body break down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars to be used for energy.
  236. Pernicious anemia
    a disease in which the red blood cells are abnormally formed, due to an inability to absorb vitamin B12.
  237. intrinsic
    Situated within or belonging solely to the organ or body part on which it acts.
  238. Transient
    pertaining to a condition that is temporary or of short duration, usually not recurring.
  239. optic nerve atrophy
    damage to the optic nerve resulting in a degeneration or destruction of the optic nerve.
  240. ACLS
    • advanced cardiac life support
    •  
  241. algorithm
    a step-by-step method of solving a problem or making decisions, as in making a diagnosis.
  242. bioavailability
    A measure of the amount of drug that is actually absorbed from a given dose.
  243. Intravenous Infusion
    a solution administered into a vein through an infusion set that includes a plastic or glass vacuum bottle or bag containing the solution and tubing connecting the bottle to a catheter or a needle in the patient's vein.
  244. continuous infusion
    usually consists of small pulses of infusion
  245. isoproterenol
    a bronchodilator. It works by relaxing muscles in the airways to improve breathing
  246. bronchodilator
    A medicine used to open up the bronchial tubes (air passages) of the lungs.
  247. norepinephrine
    similar to adrenaline. It works by constricting (narrowing) the blood vessels and increasing blood pressure and blood glucose (sugar) levels
  248. dopamine
    a medication form of a substance that occurs naturally in the body. It works by improving the pumping strength of the heart and improves blood flow to the kidneys
  249. amiodarone
    an antiarrhythmic medication that affects the rhythm of heartbeats. Amiodaroneis used to help keep the heart beating normally in people with life-threatening heart rhythm disorders of the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart that allow blood to flow out of the heart)
  250. Endotracheal Administration
    • involves the introduction of the agent directly through the endotracheal tube in an intubated patient. Generally this route is considered as a last resort for drug administration, and provides a fast, effective means of drug delivery in a patient who requires immediate medication.
    • Same as tracheal administration
  251. endotracheal tube
    A tube inserted into the trachea to provide a passageway for air. Also called tracheal tube.
  252. intubate
    To insert a tube into a hollow organ or body passage.
  253. NS
    normal saline; a salt solution containing 0.9% sodium chloride in distilled (vaporized) water that exhibits the same molecular concentration as blood.
  254. physiologic
    Characteristic of normal, healthy functioning
  255. dilute
    to reduce a solution by adding water

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