A&P exam 5

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A&P exam 5
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2013-07-10 10:02:00
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A&P exam 5
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  1. What are the organs of the G.I. tract
    • Mouth
    • Pharynx
    • Esophagus
    • Stomach
    • Small intestine
    • Large intestine
  2. What are the accessory organs of the G.I. tract
    • Teeth
    • Tongue
    • Salivary glands
    • Liver
    • Gallbladder
    • Pancreas
  3. Chewing and churning are what type of digestion
    Mechanical digestion
  4. The activity of gastric acid (HCl) and specific digestive enzymes are a part of which type of digestion
    Chemical digestion
  5. Endocrine hormones affect which organs activity
    • Stomach
    • Intestine
    • Liver
    • Pancreatic
  6. Fecal waste matter exits the body by the process of defecation is known as what
    Expulsion
  7. within the gastrointestinal tract function, this is via immune activity and chemical degradation of ingested bacteria and antigens
    Protection
  8. The mixing and propulsion of G.I. contents is known as what
    Motility
  9. Most nutrient absorption occurs where
    It occurs in the proximal one half of the small intestine (jejunum) through a very large surface area
  10. What lubricates the lumen and facilitates digestion, motility, and nutrient absorption within the G.I. tract
    Secretions
  11. Within the gastrointestinal tract, where does temporary storage occur
    • Stomach
    • Large intestine
    • Gallbladder (bile)
  12. Appetite and hunger is controlled by what
    Hypothalamic hunger and satiety centers
  13. What is appetite stimulated by
    • Sensory input: smelling or seeing food
    • Low blood glucose concentration
  14. Which G.I. tract hormones stimulate hunger
    • ghrelin
    • galanin
    • orexin
  15. Which G.I. tract hormones decrease hunger
    • Cholecystokinin
    • Peptide YY
  16. Which G.I. tract hormone stimulates the feeling of fullness after a meal (satiety)
    Leptin
  17. Blood flows to the G.I. tract from where
    • Celiac trunk
    • Superior mesenteric artery
    • Inferior mesenteric artery
  18. Blood flows from the G.I. tract directly to where, via the what
    Directly to the liver via the hepatic portal vein
  19. What are the functions of the lymphatic capillaries
    • Lipid absorption in the small intestine
    • Fluid and protein absorption in the liver
  20. What are the four layers of the G.I. tract
    • Mucosa
    • Submucosa
    • Muscularis
    • Serosa
  21. Which layer of the G.I. tract is the major absorptive and secretory layer
    Mucosa
  22. What are the sublayers of the mucosa layer of the G.I tract
    • Epithelial cells
    • Lamina propria
    • Muscularis mucosae
  23. Which sublayer of the mucosa of the G.I. tract are in direct contact with the G.I. tract contents, and the exocrine and endocrine cells are scattered with in this layer
    Epithelial cells
  24. Which sublayer of the mucosa of the G.I. tract has connective tissue containing tiny blood and lymph capillaries, and the mucosa associated lymphadenitis tissue (MALT) that protects the G.I. tract from some diseases
    Lamina propria
  25. Which sublayer of the mucosa in the G.I. tract is made of thin smooth muscle layer, and the fold increases surface area available for nutrient digestion and absorption
    Muscularis mucosae
  26. This layer of the G.I. tract is composed of connective tissue that binds the mucosa to the muscularis, contains many blood and lymph vessels that receive absorbed food molecules, and contains the submucosal nerve plexus
    Submucosa
  27. Which layer of the G.I. tract has skeleton muscle, smooth muscle, and contains the myenteric nerve plexus between the two smooth muscle layers
    Muscularis
  28. Which layer of the G.I. tract is composed of a serous membrane composed of connective tissue and simple squamous epithelium, is also known as the visceral peritoneum, and surrounds portions of the G.I. tract suspended in the abdominal pelvic cavity
    Serosa
  29. The largest serous membrane in the body is what
    Peritoneum
  30. What does that peritoneum consist of
    • Parietal peritoneum: lines the wall of the abdominopelvic cavity
    • Visceral peritoneum (serosa): covers some organs
  31. this is a narrow space located between the visceral and parietal peritoneum, it is considered a potential space, and normally contains a small volume of serous fluid
    Peritoneal cavity
  32. What are the five major folds of the peritoneum
    • Greater omentum
    • Falciform ligament
    • Lesser omentum
    • Mesentery
    • Mesocolon
  33. Which peritoneum fold is the largest fold and is known as a fatty apron, it is attached to the transverse colon and drapes over loops of small intestine anteriorly, normally contains a significant amount of adipose tissue, and lymph nodes within contribute plasma cells and macrophages
    Greater omentum
  34. Which fold of the peritoneum attaches the liver to the diaphragm and the anterior abdominal wall
    Falciform ligament
  35. Which fold of the peritoneum arises as two folds in the serosa of the stomach and duodenum, and suspends the stomach and duodenum from the liver
    Lesser omentum
  36. Which fold of the peritoneum binds the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall, folds back to its original form creating a double layered structure, contains blood and lymph vessels and lymph nodes, and holds the intestines loosely in place so muscular contractions of the intestines can move G.I.contents  along the G.I. tract
    Mesentery
  37. Which fold of the peritoneum binds the large intestine to the posterior abdominal wall, and holds the intestines loosely in place so muscular contractions of the intestines can move G.I. contents along the G.I. tract
    Mesocolon
  38. Which salivary glands open directly into the oral cavity
    • Labial (lips)
    • Buccal (cheeks)
    • Palatal (palate)
    • Lingual glands (tongue)
  39. Which major salivary glands have ducts leading into the oral cavity
    • Parotid (paired)
    • Submandibular (paired)
    • Sublingual
  40. What are the functions of saliva
    • Lubrication
    • Cooling
    • Provides digestive enzymes that facilitate food digestion
    • Protects the G.I. tract via the antimicrobial actions of IgA, WBCs, and opsonins
  41. Salivary secretion is regulated by what
    Parasympathetic nervous system input (VII: facial, IX: glossopharyngeal)
  42. What are the salivary enzymes
    • Salivary amylase (Ptyalin): starch digestion begins in the mouth
    • Lingual lipase: secreted from Von Ebner's glands of the tongue, lipid digestion begins in the mouth, but enzyme activity is enhanced by gastric acid in the stomach lumen
  43. this is a fold of mucous membrane in the midline of the undersurface of the tongue, is attached to the floor of the mouth, and limits posterior movement of the tongue
    lingual frenulum
  44. these are projections of the lamina propria covered by keratinized epithelium, they extend over the dorsal and lateral tongue surfaces, and their function is to increase friction between the tongue and food during chewing
    papillae
  45. what are the receptors located on the papillae
    some touch receptors and many gustation receptors (taste buds)
  46. what is a funnel-shaped cavity extending from the internal nasal nares to the esophagus posteriorly and the larynx anteriorly, is composed of skeletal muscle, and lined by mucous membrane
    pharynx
  47. what are the 3 parts of the pharynx
    • nasopharynx: functions only in respiration
    • oropharynx: has both respiratory and digestive functions
    • laryngopharynx(larynx): has both respiratory and digestive functions
  48. a protrusion of part of the stomach into the inferior thorax through a weakened esophageal hiatus is known as what
    hiatal hernia
  49. this is a collapsible muscular tube, lies posterior to the trachea, begins at the inferior end of the layngopharynx, passes through the mediastinum anterior to the vertebral column, and pierces the diaphragm through the esophageal hiatus
    esophagus
  50. this is composed of squamous epithelium containing mucous cells, and near the stomach, the mucous cells are more numerous and serve a protective function
    esophageal mucosa
  51. this is composed of CT containing blood vessels and mucous glands
    submucosa
  52. the superior 1/3 muscularis is composed of what type of muscle
    skeletal
  53. the middle 1/3 of the muscularis is composed of which type of muscle
    skeletal and smooth
  54. the distal 1/3 muscularis is composed of which type of muscle
    smooth muscle
  55. this regulates food movement from the esophagus into the stomach and is not easily visualized (it is an area of thickened muscularis)
    lower esophageal sphincter
  56. the junction of esophageal and gastric mucosa at the esophagogastric junction is known as what
    Z line
  57. this is the outermost layer, the CT of this layer merges with CT of the surrounding mediastinal structures anchoring the esophagus in place
    adventitia
  58. this is located between the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers of the muscularis, and regulates muscle contraction and relaxation that mixes and propels GI contents through the tract lumen
    myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus
  59. this is located between the circular smooth muscle and submucosa layers, and it regulates the local GI tract secretions
    submucosal (Meissner's) plexus
  60. the ________ innervates most of the GI tract except the _____ one-half of the large intestine
    • vagus nerve
    • distal
  61. sensory input to the CNS, submucosal plexus, and myenteric plexus is via the what
    luminal receptors
  62. these sense stretch on smooth muscle layers of the muscularis caused by luminal distention
    stretch receptors (AKA mechanoreceptors)
  63. these sense chemical composition of the GI contents
    chemoreceptors
  64. motor neurons from the _________ send impulses to longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers of the muscularis affecting ______
    myenteric plexus

    motility
  65. motor neurons from the _______ sends impulses to the mucosal epithelium affecting _____ from secretory and endocrine cells of the mucosa
    submucosal plexus

    secretions
  66. which nervous system is involved when greater blood flow is required by skeletal muscles and blood is diverted from the GI tract, the GI tract secretions _______ and GI tract motility _____
    SNS

    decreases

    decreases
  67. which nervous system involves the most nerve impulses traveling to the GI tract via the vagus nerve, GI tract secretions _____ and GI tract motility _____
    PNS

    increase

    increase
  68. what are the parasympathetic neurotransmitters involved with GI tract motility
    acetylcholine and substance P
  69. what are the hormones involved with GI tract motility
    cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin
  70. what inhibits smooth muscle contraction within the GI tract motility
    nitric oxide and vasoactive intestinal peptide
  71. these originate in the mid-stomach and travel to the terminal ileum, and consist of short periods of contractile waves that move undigested material and bacteria out of the stomach and small intestine into the colon during fasting periods
    migrating myoelectric (motility) complexes
  72. what are the functions of the migrating myoelectric (motility) complexes
    • protects the proximal small intestine from prolonged exposure to caustic gastric secretions
    • moves ingested bacteria into the less hospitable environment of the colon
  73. within the oral stage of swallowing, explain what occurs
    • food bolus is voluntarily moved into the pharynx
    • touch receptors are stimulated
    • the swallowing reflex is initiated
  74. explain what occurs in the pharyngeal stage of swallowing
    • food bolus moves to back of pharynx
    • epiglottis closes preventing food from entering the trachea
    • the tongues rises against the palate closing off the nasopharynx
    • the pharyngeal muscles contract
    • the food bolus moves through the upper esophageal sphincter into the esophagus
  75. explain what occurs in the esophageal stage of swallowing
    • voluntary control of movement of the food bolus is lost
    • the swallowing center in the medulla stimulates a wave of primary esophageal sphincter
    • food bolus moves from the esophagus into the stomach through the lower esophageal sphincter
  76. this occurs if the food bolus has not traversed the entire length of the esophagus due to dryness or large size, and it is initiated by action of local mechanoreceptors that sense stretch of esophageal smooth muscle
    secondary esophageal peristalsis
  77. pathologically persistent sphincter relaxation is known as what
    gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  78. when stomach walls relax as food enters under the influence of vagal release of VIP (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide) is known as what
    receptive relaxation
  79. what receptors in the stomach wall sense the presence of gastric contents stimulating mixing contraction
    mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors
  80. what is formed when food mixes with gastric secretions
    chyme
  81. how is chime propelled through the small intestine
    • peristalsis
    • segmentations
  82. what is it called when certain bacteria or irritants within intestinal segments cause rapid propulsion of chime through the small intestines
    peristaltic rushes
  83. what is the most frequent type of muscle contraction in the small intestine
    segmentations
  84. how is chime propelled through the large intestine
    • peristalsis
    • segmental propulsion
    • mass peristalsis
  85. in segmental propulsion, chyme is temporarily stored within pouch-like structure known as what
    haustra
  86. how is haustra formed
    by contraction of the large longitudinal muscle bands (taenia coli)
  87. what are the 2 types of diarrhea
    • osmotic
    • secretory
  88. what is the most common type of diarrhea
    osmotic diarrhea
  89. what are the common etiologies of osmotic diarrhea
    • certain viruses and bacteria
    • ulcerative colitis, IBS, Crohn's disease
    • emotional stress
  90. starch digestion occurs through action of which enzyme
    salivary amylase
  91. TG digestion is enhanced via gastric acid effect of which enzyme
    lingual lipase
  92. what substances from the food bolus are absorbed
    • ASA
    • H2O
    • ions
    • ETOH
    • some drugs
  93. what are the 4 regions of the stomach
    • cardia
    • fundus
    • body
    • pylorus
  94. which region of the stomach surrounds the superior opening of the stomach
    carida
  95. which region of the stomach is a rounded portion superior to and to the left of the cardia
    fundus
  96. which region of the stomach is the large central portion
    body
  97. which region of the stomach is the region that connects to the duodenum
    pylorus
  98. what are the 3 regions of the pylorus
    • pyloric antrum
    • pyloric canal
    • pyloric sphincter
  99. which part of the pyloris connects the body to the stomach
    pyloric antrum
  100. which part of the pyloris is the section leading to the duodenum (distal to the pyloric antrum)
    pyloric canal
  101. the sphincter between the pylorus and duodenum is known as what
    pyloric sphincter
  102. the concave medial border of the stomach is known as the what
    lesser curvature
  103. the convex lateral border of the stomach is known as the what
    greater curvature
  104. what are the 3 muscle layers of the stomach
    • inner oblique
    • middle circular
    • outer longitudinal
  105. large, visible mucosal folds created by the muscularis mucosae are known as what
    rugae
  106. small openings that arise from within the folds into the stomach lumen are known as what
    gastric pits
  107. several cell types line the mucosal folds forming structures known as what
    gastric glands
  108. surface mucous cells secrete ____ that is trapped at the epithelial cell surface
    HCO3
  109. these differentiate to replace other cell types
    stem (regenerative) cells
  110. which cells produce HCl
    parietal cells
  111. this maintains an acidic gastric environment, digests food, kills ingested bacteria, and converts inactive pepsinogens to pepsins
    HCl
  112. what is the intrinsic factor of parietal cells
    required for intestinal absorption of B12
  113. the inactive form of pepsin
    pepsinogen
  114. what are the gastric gland cells
    • surface mucous cells
    • stem (regenerative cells)
    • chief cells
    • endocrine cells
    • enterochromaffin-like cells
    • gastric G cells
  115. which enzyme splits short-chain TG into fatty acids and monoglycerides, continues the process of lipid digestion, and is not as important as pancreatic lipase
    gastric lipase
  116. what inhibits HCl and gastrin secretion
    somatostatin
  117. what is responsible for most HCl secretion from parietal cells
    histamine
  118. which enzyme stimulates parietal cell HCl secretion, stimulates gastric motility (mixing) along with CCK, and stimulates mass peristalsis in the colon
    gastrin
  119. in digestion, food storage primarily occurs here with few mixing waves
    fundus
  120. which enzyme is inactivated by HCl
    salivary amylase
  121. what are the phases of digestion
    • cephalic phase
    • gastric phase
    • intestinal phase
  122. in the cephalic phase of digestion, which cells secrete pepsinogen
    chief cells
  123. what is an enzyme that initiates protein digestion in the stomach
    pepsin
  124. ______ secrete gastrin when stimulated by vagal release of ACh
    G cells
  125. proton pump activity is directly stimulated by what
    vagus nerve input
  126. proton pump activity is indirectly stimulated by what
    vagally-mediated gastrin and histamine secretion
  127. proton pumps actively transport ____ into the stomach lumen while transporting ____ ions into the parietal cells
    • H+
    • K+
  128. when HCO3 exits the parietal cells and move into the interstitial fluid in exchange for Cl- via HCO3/Cl- antitransporters is known as what
    chloride shift
  129. when HCO3 enters the blood after a meal, a large quantity can elevate blood pH slightly and result in temporary excretion of alkaline urine, is known as what
    alkaline tide
  130. these are medication that reduce HCl production in the stomach lumen, and is used to treat disorders such as gastric and peptic ulcers and GERD
    proton pump inhibitors and histamine blockers
  131. what are the 2 factors that stimulate gastric secretions
    • stomach distention detected by stretch receptors
    • chemical content of chime detected by chemoreceptors
  132. in the gastric phase, what stimulates continued pepsinogen secretion from chief cells and stimulates gastrin secretion from gastrin G cells
    partially-digested proteins
  133. in the gastric phase, what stimulates the ECL cell secretion of histamine that continues to stimulate parietal cell secretion of HCl, and stimulates the proton pump function
    gastrin
  134. what is the feedback mechanism that regulated HCl secretion in the gastric phase
    • as the pH of gastric juice decreases, gastrin secretion decreases
    • gastrin secretion stops at a pH of 1.0
    • as gastrin secretion decreases, HCl secretion decreases accordingly
  135. in the intestinal phase, what prevents the duodenum from being overloaded, and promotes continued digestion of food already in the small intestine
    reflexes that slow the exit of chime from the stomach
  136. what are the 2 mechanisms that affect the intestinal phase of digestion
    • neural regulation
    • hormonal regulation
  137. what are the hormones secreted by enteroendocrine cells of the duodenum
    • cholecystokinin
    • secretin
    • gastric inhibitory peptide
  138. this lies posterior to the greater curvature of the stomach and is connected to the duodenum by 2 ducts
    pancreas
  139. what are the components of the pancreas
    • head: expanded portion near curve of the duodenum
    • body
    • tail
  140. what are the 2 ducts that connect the pancreas to the duodenum
    • accessory duct (duct of Santorini)
    • pancreatic duct (duct of Wirsung)
  141. what is a passageway into the duodenum for secretions from the gallbladder, liver, and pancreas
    hepatopancreatic ampulla AKA the ampulla of Vater
  142. the sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla is a smooth muscle ring that controls the passage of bile and pancreatic juice into the duodenum is called what
    sphincter of Oddi
  143. what are the 2 types of glandular epithelial cells within the pancreas
    • acini
    • islets of Langerhans
  144. which cells of the pancreas are comprised 99% of glandular epithelial cells, has an exocrine function, and the cells secrete pancreatic juice
    acini
  145. which cells of the pancreas are comprised of the remaining 1% of glandular epithelial cells
    islets of langerhans
  146. what are the endocrine hormones secreted by the islets of Langerhans into the nearby blood capillaries
    • insulin
    • glucagon
    • somatostatin
    • pancreatic polypeptide
  147. what are the pancreatic enzymes
    • proteases
    • pancreatic amylase
    • pancreatic lipase
    • trypsin inhibitor
  148. which pancreatic enzyme is stored and released as inactive zymogens
    proteases
  149. which pancreatic enzyme hydrolyzes starch molecules in chyme to maltose
    pancreatic amylase
  150. which pancreatic enzyme hydrolyzes TG into monoglycerides and FFAs
    pancreatic lipase
  151. what binds to bile allowing pancreatic lipase free access to lipid molecules
    colipase
  152. what combines with any trypsin that forms within acinar cells and blocks the enzymatic activity of trypsin
    trypsin inhibitor
  153. this divides the liver into right and left lobes and extends from the undersurface of the diaphragm and helps suspend the liver within the abdominal cavity
    falciform ligament
  154. this is the remnant of the umbilical vein of the fetus and extends from the undersurface of the free border of the falciform ligament to the umbilicus
    ligamentum teres/round ligament
  155. this works in tandem with the falciform ligament suspending the liver from the diaphragm
    coronary ligament
  156. what are the lobes of the liver composed of
    • hepatocytes
    • central vein
    • sinusoids
    • hepatic plates
  157. these are perisinusoidal spaces containing interstitial fluid
    spaces of disse
  158. what are the 2 sources that the liver receives blood from
    • hepatic artery: oxygenated blood
    • hepatic portal vein: deoxygenated blood
  159. when certain newly absorbed substances are metabolized by hepatocytes before the blood exits the liver and enters the systemic circulation is known as what
    first pass effect
  160. blood from the sinusoids of the liver drains into the ________ and eventually passes into the ______
    central vein

    hepatic vein
  161. what is the normal blood pressure within the hepatic vein
    ~1mmHg
  162. excess peritoneal fluid that may be caused by increased BP within the liver that pushes the fluid out of the spaces of disse into the peritoneal space is known as what
    ascites
  163. what includes the following structures through the liver: branch of the hepatic artery, branch of the hepatic portal vein, and bile duct
    portal triad
  164. what does bile mostly consist of
    • water
    • bile salts
    • cholesterol
    • lecithin
    • bile pigments
    • several ions
  165. within the liver, what continually secretes bile
    hepatocytes
  166. what prevents bile flow into the duodenum
    sphincter of Oddi
  167. what is the principle bile pigment
    bilirubin
  168. bilirubin is transported to the liver bound to what
    albumin
  169. what are bile salts composed of
    sodium salts and potassium salts
  170. what plays an important role in emulsification
    bile salts
  171. what are the functions of the liver
    • carb metabolism
    • lipid metabolism
    • protein metabolism
    • bile salt synthesis
    • bilirubin excretion
  172. what substances does the liver produce
    • insulin-like growth factor
    • hepatocyte growth factor
    • angiotensinogen
    • thrombopoietin
  173. within the liver, which cells are responsible for phagocytosis
    kupffer cells
  174. what vitamins and minerals are stored in the liver
    A, B12, D, E and K

    iron and copper
  175. what is the broadest portion that projects inferiorly of the gallbladder
    fundus
  176. what is the central portion of the gallbladder
    body
  177. what is the tapered portion of the gallbladder
    neck
  178. the stimulation of what ejects the contents of the gallbladder into were
    CCK into the cystic duct
  179. what are the functions of the gallbladder
    • bile storage until needed in the small intestine
    • bile concentration
  180. most digestion and nutrient absorption occurs here due to a very large surface area
    small intestine
  181. what are the 3 regions of the small intestine
    • duodenum
    • jejunum
    • ileum
  182. what is the shortest region of the small intestine, it extends from the pyloric sphincter and merges with the jejunum, and extends approximately 10 inches
    duodenum
  183. what is the middle region of the small intestine and is approximately 3 feet long
    jejunum
  184. what is the longest, terminal region of the small intestine, measures approximately 6 feet, and joins the large intestine at the ileocecal valve
    ileum
  185. within the small intestine, these are visible mucosal folds, are located primarily in the duodenum and jejunum, and enhances mechanical digestion by causing chyme to "spiral" within the lumen
    circular folds
  186. within the small intestine, these are known as tufts of hair, and are finger-like projections of the mucosa
    villi
  187. these are contained with the core of the lamina propria within the small intestine
    • arteriole
    • venule
    • blood capillary network
    • lacteal surrounded by CT
  188. what are the types of epithelial cells that line the crypts of Lieberkuhn
    • absorptive: digest and absorb nutrients in chyme
    • goblet
    • paneth: secrete lysozyme and perform phagocytosis
    • enteroendocrine: secretin, CCK, and GIP secretion
  189. what contains glandular cells that secrete intestinal juice
    crypts of Lieberkuhn
  190. these are projections of the apical membrane of absorptive cells that extend into the lumen of the small intestine
    microvilli (brush border)
  191. this is primarily located in the jejunum and ileum and generates immune responses within the mucosa
    mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)
  192. these are aggregated lymph nodes (ileum)
    peyer's patches
  193. this secretes an alkaline mucous that neutralizes gastric acid in chime
    duodenal (Brunner's) glands
  194. what digests maltose, sucrose, and lactose forming rapidly absorbable monosaccharides
    polysaccharides
  195. what is an undigestible glucose polymer that inhibits some water absorption in the large intestine
    cellulose
  196. most lipid digestion in the adult occurs where
    in the small intestine
  197. these are formed in the enterocytes after lipids are re-esterified with FFAs then surrounded by a coat of B-lipoprotein (ApoB)
    chylomicrons
  198. how do chylomicrons enter the systemic blood circulation
    via the thoracic duct
  199. what are the fat soluble vitamins
    A, D, E, and K
  200. what are the water soluble vitamins
    C and most B vitamins
  201. what is the net water absorption
    9.2 liters/day
  202. how much water absorption occurs in the small intestine
    90%
  203. what are the function of the large intestine
    • completion of nutrient and water absorption
    • production of some vitamins: Vit K and B via bacterial activity
    • formation and expulsion of feces
  204. the large intestine is attached to the posterior abdominal wall by what
    mesocolon
  205. this is a fold of mucous membrane at the opening from the ileum to the large intestine containing circular muscle fibers, which allows contents in the small intestine to pass into the large intestine
    ileocecal valve (sphincter,junction)
  206. what are the 4 main regions of the large intestine
    • cecum
    • colon
    • rectum
    • anal canal
  207. what attaches inferio-medially to the cecum
    vermiform appendix
  208. what are the 4 segments of the colon
    • ascending colon
    • transverse colon
    • descending colon
    • sigmoid colon
  209. what is the storage area for feces
    rectum
  210. this delineates the distal extent of the anal columns and the proximal edge of the anoderm, is also known as the pectinate line
    dentate line
  211. what are the 2 sphincters of the anus
    • internal: smooth muscle, under involuntary control 
    • external: skeletal muscle, under voluntary control
  212. within the mucosa, the epithelium is composed of what
    • absorptive cells: function is primarily water absorption
    • goblet cells: function is mucous secretion for lubrication of the lumen

    * both are located in the crypts of Lieberkuhn
  213. what are the thickened portions of the external longitudinal muscle fibers arranged in 3 bands that run most of the length of the large intestine
    teniae coli
  214. these are portions of the intestinal wall with little or no longitudinal muscle located between teniae coli
    haustra
  215. these are small pouches of the visceral peritoneum filled with fat attached to the teniae coli
    epiploic appendages
  216. this regulates passage of chyme from the ileum into the cecum
    ileocecal valve
  217. in mechanical digestion, _______ relaxes the ileocecal valve and the ________ intensifies peristalsis in the ileum and forces any chyme present into the ______
    • gastrin
    • gastroileal reflex
    • cecum
  218. what determines the time required for a meal to pass into the colon
    gastric emptying time
  219. when does colon movement begin
    when GI contents pass the ileocecal valve
  220. this is stimulated by the presence of food in the stomach, it causes mass peristalsis 1-4 times a day, usually during or immediately after a meal
    gastrocolic reflex
  221. the last stage of digestion occurs via what
    bacterial activity
  222. what is feces composed of
    • indigestible food substances
    • unabsorbed digested materials
    • bacteria and products of their decomposition activities
    • sloughed mucosal epithelial cells
    • inorganic salts and water
  223. what are the functions of the GI tract
    • digestion
    • endocrine
    • expulsion
    • protection
    • motility
    • absorption
    • secretion
    • storage

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