Ch.1 Bio

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Ch.1 Bio
2013-07-01 23:37:18
Biology Campbell

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  1. A localized group of organisms that belong tothe same species is called a
  2. Organisms interact with their environments,exchanging matter and energy. For example, plant chloroplasts convert theenergy of sunlight into
    the potential energy of chemical bonds
  3. The main source of energy for producers in anecosystem is
    light energy
  4. Which of the following types of cells utilize deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as their genetic material but do not have their DNA encased within a nuclear envelope?
  5. To understand the chemical basis of inheritance,we must understand the molecular structure of DNA. This is an example of theapplication of which concept to the study of biology?
  6. Once labor begins in childbirth, contractionsincrease in intensity and frequency until delivery. The increasing laborcontractions of childbirth are an example of which type of regulation?
    positive feedback
  7. When the body's blood glucose level rises, the pancreas secretes insulin and, as a result, the blood glucose level declines. When the blood glucose level is low, the pancreas secretes glucagon and, as a result, the blood glucose level rises. Such regulation of the blood glucose level is the result of
    negative feedback.
  8. Which branch of biology is concerned with the naming and classifying of organisms?
  9. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells generally havewhich of the following features in common?
  10. Prokaryotes are classified as belonging to twodifferent domains. What are the domains?
    Bacteria and Archaea
  11. Global warming, as demonstrated by observations such as melting of glaciers, increasing CO2 levels, and increasing average ambient temperatures, has already had many effects on living organisms. Which of the following might best offer a solution to this problem?
    Limit the burning of fossil fuels and regulate our loss of forested areas.
  12. A water sample from a hot thermal vent containeda single-celled organism that had a cell wall but lacked a nucleus. What is itsmost likely classification
  13. A filamentous organism has been isolated fromdecomposing organic matter. This organism has a cell wall but no chloroplasts.How would you classify this organism?
    domain Eukarya, kingdom Fungi
  14. Which of these provides evidence of the commonancestry of all life?
    near universality of the genetic code
  15. Which of the following is (are) true of naturalselection?
    It requires genetic variation, results indescent with modification, and involves differential
  16. Charles Darwin proposed a mechanism for descentwith modification that stated that organisms of a particular species areadapted to their environment when they possess
    inheritable traits that enhance their survival and reproductive success in the local environment.
  17. Which of these individuals is likely to be mostsuccessful in an evolutionary sense?
    an organism that dies after five days of lifebut leaves 10 offspring, all of whom survive to reproduce
  18. In a hypothetical world, every 50 years peopleover 6 feet tall are eliminated from the population before they reproduce.Based on your knowledge of natural selection, you would predict that theaverage height of the human population will
    ) gradually decline.
  19. Through time, the lineage that led to modern whales shows a change from four-limbed land animals to aquatic animals with two limbs that function as flippers. This change is best explained by
    natural selection.
  20. What is the major difference between a kingdom and a domain?
    All eukarya belong to one domain
  21. Which of the following best describes what occurred after the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species?
    The book was widely discussed and disseminated.
  22. Why is Darwin considered original in his thinking?
    He proposed the mechanism that explained howevolution takes place
  23. ) Darwin's finches, collected from the Galápagos Islands, illustrate which of the following?
    ) adaptive radiation
  24. Which of the following categories of organisms is least likely to be revised?
  25. What is the major distinguishing characteristicof fungi?
    absorbing dissolved nutrients
  26. What are archaea?
    Prokaryotes characterized as extremophiles thatshare some bacterial and some eukaryotic traits.
  27. According to Darwinian theory, which of the following exhibits the greatest fitness for evolutionary success?
    the individuals within a population that havethe greatest reproductive success
  28. Similarities and differences among/between life-forms over time are most efficiently recorded by scientists in which field(s) of study?
    paleontology, anatomy, taxonomy, genetics, andecology
  29. Why is the theme of evolution considered to be the core theme of biology by biologists?
    It provides a framework within which all biological investigation makes sense.
  30. The method of scientific inquiry that describes natural structures and processes as accurately as possible through careful observation and the analysis of data is known as
    discovery science.
  31. Collecting data based on observation is an example of ________; analyzing this data to reach a conclusion is an example of ________ reasoning.
    discovery science; inductive
  32. When applying the process of science, which of these is tested?
    a prediction
  33. A controlled experiment is one in which
    there are at least two groups, one of which doesnot receive the experimental treatment.
  34. Why is it important that an experiment include acontrol group?
    Without a control group, there is no basis forknowing if a particular result is due to the variable being tested
  35. The application of scientific knowledge for somespecific purpose is known as
  36. Which of the following are qualities of any good scientific hypothesis?
    I.   It is testable.
    II.  It is falsifiable.
    III. It produces quantitative data.
    IV. It produces results that can be replicated
    III and IV
  37. When a hypothesis cannot be written in an "If…then" format, what does this mean?
    It does not represent deductive reasoning.
  38. In presenting data that result from an experiment, a group of students show that most of their measurements fall on a straight diagonal line on their graph. However, two of their data points are "outliers" and fall far to one side of the expected relationship. What should they do?
    Show all results obtained and then try toexplore the reason(s) for these outliers.
  39. Which of the following is the best descriptionof a control for an experiment?
    The control group is matched with the experimental group except for the one experimental variable.
  40. Given the cooperativity of science, which of the following is most likely to result in an investigator being intellectually looked down upon by other scientists?
    Being found to have falsified or created data tobetter fit a hypothesis.
  41. Which of these is an example of inductive reasoning?
    Hundreds of individuals of a species have beenobserved and all are photosynthetic; therefore, the species is photosynthetic
  42. In a high school laboratory, which of thefollowing constitutes an experiment?
    I.     learning to use a microscope by examining fixed specimens on slides'
    II.    being able to examine swimming protists under a microscope
    III.  extracting pigments from plant leaves and separating the types of pigments for identification
    IV. preparing root tips for examination by staining them
    III only
  43. Which of the following best describes a model organism?
    It is well studied, easy to grow, and resultsare widely applicable.
  44. Why is a scientific topic best discussed by people of varying points of view, a variety of subdisciplines, and diverse cultures?
    Robust and critical discussion between diversegroups improves scientific thinking

    The illustration above most probably represents
    a map of a network of protein interactionswithin a eukaryotic cell

  46. What do these two plants have in common?
    adaptations to conserve water