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Aprox. how much blood is pumped with each heart beat?
70 milliliters of blood
The heart pump generates the pressure (____a___) to move the blood. SV of blood produced by each heartbeat creates pressure (__B__) wave that travels rapidly throughout arterial system
- A- potential energy
- B- energy
The greater the energy difference (or ___ resistance), the __ the flow.
the lower the resistance
greater the flow
higher resistance= __ flow rate
lower resistance=__flow rate
- lower flow rate
- higher flow rate
What is Pressure Energy?
main form of energy present in flowing blood. Also referred to as potential energy.
Dom form is pumping action of heart muscle. Another source is hydrostatic pressure.
What is Gravitational Energy?
AKA- Hydrostatic pressure.
Type of flow where blood moves in concentric layers.
What are the two kinds of laminar flow?
- Parabolic flow- bullet shaped
- Plug flow- all flow at same velocity
Elevated hematocrit causes what?
What can affect resistance?
viscosity, vessel length, and vessel diameter
Define Poiseuille's Law:
defines the relationship between pressure, volume flow, and resistance.
I (flow of electrons) = E/R
What does Reynolds number (Re) represent?
elements that affect the development of turbulent flow represented via "dimensionless" number
Equation for Reynolds number:
Re= Vq2r/ viscosity
- V- velocity
- q- density of fluid
- r- radius
At what (Reynolds) number is flow disturbed?
exceeding 2,000 laminar flow is distrubted.
What is the main priniciple of the Bernoulli equation?
velocity and pressure are inversely related.
What is a flow separation?
Pressure gradients- the difference in pressure between two points in a vessel
How do tandem lesions compare with a single stenosis?
tandem lesions far exceed those that result from the increased resistance in a single sentosis.
Flow proximal to a stenosis is:
usually dampened, with or without disturbance.