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Erikson's theory: Generativity vs Stagnation
- -generativity involves reach out to others in ways that give to and guide the next generation.
- -generativity expands greatly in mid adults.
- -highly generative people appear well adjusted.
- -the neg outcome occurs when people become self centered and self induldged in mid life
Levinson's theory of psychosocial development in midlife
- -middle aged adults reassess their relation to themselves and the external world.
- -they confront 4 developmental tasks; young-old, destruction-creation, masculinity-feminity, and engagement-separateness.
- -each 4 require them to reconcile 2 opposing tendencies w/in themselves.
Male and female psychosocial development in midlife
- -women tend to express concern about appearing less attractive as they age.
- -but non college educated men, even more than women, show a rise in sensitivity to physical aging in midlife.
- -mid aged men may adopt more feminine traits of nurturance and caring.
- -women more masculine traits of autonomy and assertiveness.
- -men and successful career women often reduce focus on ambition and achievement where as women who are devoted to childrearing and unfullfilling jobs typically focus outward on rewarding community work.
Valliant theory of psychosocial dev in midlife
-valliant found that adults in their late 40s and 50s become guardians of their culture seeking to "pass the torch" to later generations.
- -intense self doubt and stress that lead to drastic life alterations.
- -only a minority experice midlife crisis
Midlife stage approach
- some changes and adaptions to external life events are less age graded than in the past.
- -most middle aged adults report stagelike development, in which troubling moments prompt new understandings and goals.
future oriented representations of what one hopes to become and what one is afraid of becoming. possible selves are the temporial dimension of self concept, what is the individual striving for and attempting to avoid.
stability and change in self concept and personality
- -mid age adults stay motivated by revising their personal selves.
- -mid life typically leads to greater self acceptance, autonomy, and environmental mastery - all leading to greater psychological well being and life satisfaction
- -as a reasult midlife is sometimes called the prime of life.
- -daily stressor plateau from early to mid adulthood then decline as work and family responsibilites ease.
parental imperative theory
- holds that identification with traditional gender roles is maintained during the active parenting years to help ensure survival of children.
- -men become more goal oriented while women emphasize nurturance.
- -after children reach adulthood parents are free to express the "other gender" side of their personalities
Big Five personality traits
- -neurtoticism, extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness
- -neuroticism, extroversion, and openness to experience show stability or modest declines during adulthood.
- -agreeableness and conscientiousness increase.
- -but individual differences in the big five traits are highly stable
Midlife family life cycle
-launching children and moving on is the midlife phase of the family life cycle.
Feminization of poverty
- -a trend in which women who support themselves or their families become the majority of the adult population living in poverty, regardless of age and ethnic grp.
- -when divorce happens midlife adults are more easily adaptable than young people.
- -women experience a signifigant economic disadvantage contributing to the feminization of poverty.
-mothers especially take on the role of gathering the family for celebrations and making sure everyone stays in touch.
skipped generation families
when grandchildren are raised by the grandparents rather than their parents.
-middle aged adults that must care for generations above and below them at the same time.
- -a condition in which long term job stress leads to mental exhaustion etc.
- -big hazard especially for those that are in the helping profession
women and ethnic minorities face a glass ceiling effect, or invisible barrier to advancement up the corporate ladder.
Siblings and friendships in ma
- -sibling contact and support declines for early to mid adulthood bc of demands in real life.
- -most tend to feel closer tho. sister sister ties are typically closest.
- -friendships become fewer and more deeply valued.
Career change in ma
-usually is from one job to another that is related. a radical switch is usually an indication of a personal crisis.
unemployment in ma
- -difficult for ma cuz they are usually the ones affected by downsizing.
- -probably wont find their previous status or pay again