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What is criminology?
The study of crime within the broader field of sociology.
What are the 3 conclusion developed by Athens?
- 1. violent criminals decide to act violently based on their interpretation of a situation
- 2. the interpret the world differently from law-abiding citizens
- 3. the violent acts were not explosions, they were decisions
T/F: According to Athens, murders are never senseless from the criminal's point of view.
What are the four distinct types of interpretations discovered by Athens?
- 1. Physically Defensive
- 2. Frustrative
- 3. Malefic or Evil
- 4. Frustrative-malefic
Describe the physically defensive interpretation.
- -interprets victim's attitude to mean that physical attack is imminent or already in progress
- -thinks he should respond violently and form a violent plan of action
- -these criminals view themselves as nonviolent
- -predominant emotion is fear
Describe the frustrative interpretation.
- -victim is resisting what the perp wants to do
- -victim wants perp to cooperate in a course of action the perp rejects
- -perp sees violence as the most appropriate way to handle the situation
- -predominant emotion is anger
Describe the malefic or evil interpretation.
- -perp assesses the attitude of the victim as scornful, belittling, or contemptuous of him
- -perp concludes from internal debate that the victim is evil or malicious
- -he decides to counter such evil with violence and calls up a violent plan of action
- -predominant emotion is hatred
Describe the frustrative-malefic interpretation.
- -combines features of both
- -resistance or insistence is evil and demands a violent response
- -all start out as frustrative and then become malefic
- -predominant emotion is anger
What are the three developments determine whether a VCA follows through to commit violent act?
- 1. a fixed line of indication; tunnel visions
- -immediately carries out his plan or nurtures it along
- 2. restraining judgment
- -VCA redefines the situation and decides not to act violently
- 3. overriding judgement
- -VCA breaks out of a fixed line of indication
- -victim's conduct is deemed intolerable to VCA
- -move to malefic interpretation of the victim's attitude
T/F: Athen's typology confirms that the VCA is responsible for their acts.
His research shows that criminal acts are volitional and VCAs decide, consider, and choose when and where to act violently
What is different about the VCA's decision-making process that leads them to such different conclusions?
What is a phantom community?
Interposed between the individual and the broad collectivity of society were the significant others whose attitudes had shaped that individual (parents and other members of his primary group, the voices of his past experiences)
What are the 4 stages in Athen's experiential process or violentization?
- 1. Brutalization
- 2. Belligerency
- 3. Violent performance
- 4. Virulency
What are the three elemental experiences of brutalization?
- 1. Violent subjugation- one of the subject's primary group uses violence or forces the subject to submit to his authority using coercion and retaliation.
- 2. Personal horrification-subject witnesses another person being subjugated by a member of their primary group
- 3. Violent coaching- subject is assigned role of violent novice by another is his primary group, who must be credible, coaching is informal and implicit, intention is to prompt violent conduct
What are the five violent coaching techniques?
- 1. Vainglorification- story-telling conveys that violence is glory, least punitive techinique, teaching principle is vicarious enjoyment
- 2. Ridicule- promotes violence through belittling and derision, teaching principle is torment
- 3. Coercion- coaching through violent subjugation, threatens with physical punishment, teaching principle is fear
- 4. Haranguing- repeated rants and raves about hurting other people, no belittling or theatening needed, teaching principle is incessant melodrama
- 5. Beseigment- combines the first three techniques, combination of social penalties or rewards, teaching principle is overkill
The belligerency stage is completed when?
by the first mitigated violent resolution
During the belligerency stage, the subject resolves to use violence when?
he is eriouslyprovoked and only if he has a chance at prevailing
What are the 4 degrees of provocation in the violent performance stage??\
- 1. None
- 2. Minimal
- 3. Moderate: actions that purposely and cruelly antagonize the subject to the point of tormenting him
- 4. Maximum: actions that place the subject or someone he cares about in imminent danger
T/F: In the violent performance stage, the immediate outcome is not as influential as the degree of provocation.
The immediate outcome has the same amount of influence as the degree of provocation
In the virulency stage, ______ or less than ________ provocation is required.
Describe the virulency stage of violentization.
- -subject moves to unmitigated violent resolution
- -ready to become ultraviolent criminal
- -people may avoid and he becomes outcast and loner
What are the three types of minor communities within the larger corporal communities in the US?
- 1. Civil (suburbs)- pacifist predominates, then marginally violent person
- 2. Turbulent (transition neighborhoods)- mix of all four types, none predominates
- 3. Malignant (inner city ghettos)- ultraviolent predominates, then violent