Med Terms 14

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Med Terms 14
2013-07-02 20:08:14
medical terminology skin

Lesson 14
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  1. Integumentary System
    Skin and its accessory organs (hair, nails, sebaceous & sweat glands)
  2. Functions of the Skin
    •Protect against pathogens and dehydration

    •Communicate sensory information

    •Temperature regulation

    •Produce secretions
  3. The 3 Layers of the Skin
    • Epidermis- the outer layer
    • Dermis - deep layer, contains accessory organs of the skin, is composed of collagen fibers
    • Hypodermis/subcutaneous tissue- connects skin to surface muscles, lipocytes manufacture and store fat
  4. Hair
    Hair fiber is composed of the hard protein keratin

    Melanocytes donate melanin pigment
  5. Nails
    • Hard keratin plates covering the dorsal surface of the last bone of each toe and finger
    • Can extend indefinitely unless cut or broken
    • Toenails grow more slowly than fingernails
  6. Paronychium
    Soft tissue surrounding the nail border
  7. Paronychia
    • Inflammation & infection around a nail due to bacteria or fungi
    • Causes include nail biting, aggressive manicuring
  8. Sebaceous Glands
    • Located in dermal layer of skin, secrete oily substance called sebum
    • Lubricates skin & minimizes water loss
    • Closely associated with hair follicles
    • Influenced by sex hormones- overproduction during puberty contributes to blackheads & pimples
  9. Sweat Glands
    Most common type is eccrine sweat glands, Most numerous in palms of hand and soles of feet

    Sweat is colorless and odorless, Cools the body as it evaporates

    • Apocrine sweat glands - Active
    • from puberty on, Concentrated
    • near reproductive organs and armpits
  10. Adip/o
  11. Albin/o
  12. Caus/o
    Burn, burning
  13. Cutane/o
  14. Derm/o
  15. Diaphor/o
    Profuse sweating
  16. Hidr/o
  17. Ichthy/o
    Scaly, dry
  18. Kerat/o
    Hard, horny tissue
  19. Myc/o
  20. Onych/o
  21. Pil/o
    Hair, hair follicle
  22. Rhytid/o
  23. Seb/o
  24. Squam/o
  25. Trich/o
  26. Ungu/o
  27. Xer/o
  28. Cyst
    A closed sac that contains liquid or semiliquid substances
  29. Papule
    A small, raised, solid circumscribed area of the skin (i.e. pimple)
  30. Pustule
    A small circumscribed elevation of the skin containing pus
  31. Ulcer
    Open sore on skin or mucous membranes within the body
  32. Vesicle
    Clear, fluid-filled, raised lesion
  33. Alopecia
    Absence of hair from where it usually grows, may be hereditary or caused by disease, injury or occur in old age

    Alopecia areata- Idiopathic, hair falls out in patches
  34. Ecchymosis
    • Bluish-black mark (bruise) on the skin
    • Caused by hemorrhages into the skin
  35. Petechia (petechiae)
    Small pinpoint hemorrhage
  36. Pruritus
    Itching- symptom of dermatitis, caused by stimulation of nerves in the skin by substances released in allergic reactions or irritation
  37. Urticaria (hives)
    Red, round wheals on the skin, acute allergic reaction i.e. food allergies
  38. Acne (vulgaris)
    The eruption of the skin with increased production of sebum
  39. Blackhead (comedo)
    Sebum plug partially blocking the pore
  40. Whitehead
    Pore is completely blocked, bacteria in the skin break down the sebum, producing inflammation in the surrounding tissue
  41. Burns
    Injury to the skin caused by heat or other means

    •Superficial burn - involves only the epidermis

    •Partial-thickness burn - involves epidermis and dermis

    •Full-thickness burn - involves destruction of entire skin
  42. Eczema
    Inflammatory skin condition with erythematous, papulovesicular lesions

    Occurs on face, neck, elbows and knees, Family history of allergic conditions
  43. Psoriasis
    Chronic recurrent dermatosis

    Itchy, scaly, red plaques covered by silvery gray scales

    Increased rate of growth of basal layer of epidermis

    Commonly involves forearms, knees, legs, scalp

    Unknown cause
  44. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
    Autoimmune disease of collagen in  skin, of joints and internal organs

    Characteristic ‘butterfly’ pattern of redness over cheeks and nose

    Primarily females are affected
  45. Tinea
    Infection of the skin caused by a fungus, can affect the hair, skin, and nails, highly contagious, causes severe pruiritus 

    • Tinea corporis (ringworm)
    • Tinea pedis (athletes foot)
    • Tinea capitis (scalp)
    • Tinea unguium (affects the nails)
  46. Vitiligo
    Loss of pigment in areas of the skin

    Also known as leukoderma

    Increased association with certain autoimmune conditions

    Epidermal melanocytes are lost through an autoimmune process
  47. Herpes simplex (infection)
    • Eruption of blisters on the skin and submucous membranes
    • Caused by local infection of herpes virus
  48. Herpes Zoster (infection)
    • Viral infection that affects the peripheral nerves
    • Causes eruption of blisters that follows the course of the affected nerves, commonly called shingles
  49. Impetigo
    Highly contagious bacterial skin infection, most common in children

    • Caused by Staphylococcus Aureus, or more rarely Streptococcus Pyogenes bacteria.
    • First sign of impetigo is a patch of red, itchy skin
  50. Abscess
    A circumscribed collection of pus caused by a bacterial infection
  51. Carbuncle
    Collection of large localized abscesses seated in groups of hair follicles & connected by channels
  52. Furuncle
    Infection of a hair follicle
  53. Cellulitis
    Inflammation of the subcutaneous layer of the skin
  54. Callus (skin neoplasms)
    • Increased growth of cells in the keratin layer of epidermis
    • Caused by pressure or friction
    • Common sites are feet & hands
  55. Keloid (skin neoplasms)
    • Thickened scar that develops after trauma or surgical incision
    • Result of excessive collagen formation in skin during connective tissue repair
  56. Keratosis (skin neoplasms)
    Thickened, rough lesion of the epidermis, associated with aging or skin damage
  57. Leukoplakia (skin neoplasm)
    • White, thickened patches on mucous membrane tissue of tongue or cheek
    • One type is a precancerous lesion common in smokers
  58. Nevi (skin neoplasm)
    • Pigmented lesion of the skin, known as moles
    • Dysplastic Nevi- have atypical cells, may progress to melanoma
  59. Basal Cell Carcinoma
    • Malignant tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis
    • Most common type of skin cancer
    • Slow growing, usually occurs on exposed areas of skin that are chronically exposed to the sun
  60. Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    • Malignant tumor of the squamous epithelial cells of the epidermis
    • Tumor can be found on Mouth, Larynx, Bladder, Esophagus, Lungs
    • Actinic Keratoses- premalignant lesions in people with sun damaged skin
  61. Malignant Melanoma
    • Cancerous growth composed of melanocytes
    • Combination of genetic predisposition and exposure to ultraviolet light
    • Can metastasize to lung, liver, bone, brain
  62. Skin biopsy
    Skin lesions are removed for a microscopic examination
  63. Frozen section
    Thin slice of tissue cut from a frozen specimen used for rapid microscopic diagnosis
  64. Skin Test
    Used to diagnose allergies
  65. Dermatome
    Instrument used for cutting thin slices of skin for grafting or excising small lesions
  66. Mohs Micrographic Surgery
    • Thin layers of malignant cells are removed & examined microscopically
    • Used to treat basal cell & squamous cell carcinomas as well as other tumors
  67. Dermatology
    A medical specialty focusing on the study and treatment of disorders of the skin
  68. Medical Esthetician
    Licensed professional in the field of cosmetic beauty