Med Terms 15

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  1. Structures of the Cardiovascular System
    •Heart has four chambers and valves

    •Heart wall has three tissue layers

    •Heart muscle and tissue are specialized

    •Arteries carry blood away from the heart

    •Capillaries allow for exchange of gases

    •Veins return blood back to the heart
  2. Arteries
    • Carry blood away from the heart
    • Arterioles are smaller branches of arteries
  3. Veins
    • Carry blood toward the heart
    • Venules are smaller branches of veins
  4. Blood Vessels
    •Big: Arteries and Veins

    •Smaller: Arterioles and Venules

    •Smallest: Capillaries

    • Vasodilation- increase in the diameter of a blood
    • vessel

    • Vasoconstriction – decrease in the diameter of a blood
    • vessel
  5. Structure of the Aorta
    •Aorta moves up (ascending aorta), then arches over dorsally and runs downward (descending aorta) in front of the vertebral column

    •Aorta divides into arteries that carries oxygenated blood throughout the body
  6. Right & Left Atria
    Upper receiving chamber
  7. Right & Left Ventricles
    Lower pumping chamber
  8. Right Atrioventricular Valve
    Tricuspid valve between the right atrium and right ventricle
  9. Left Atrioventricular Valve
    Mitral valve/bicuspid valve between the left atrium and left ventricle
  10. Pulmonary Valve
    Between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery; regulates blood flow to the lung
  11. Aortic valve
    Regulates blood flow between the left ventricle and aorta
  12. Diastole (relaxation)
    Ventricle walls relax; blood flows into the heart from the venae cavae and pulmonary veins
  13. Systole (contraction)
    Wall of the right and left ventricles contract to pump blood into the pulmonary artery & aorta
  14. Conduction System of the Heart
    •Electrical impulse originates in SA node or pacemaker of the heart

    –Blood is pumped from atria to ventricle

    • •Electricity passes to another region of the myocardium ,the AV node (atrioventricular
    • node)

    •AV node sends the excitation wave to the atriventricular bundle (or bundle of His) in the interventricular septum)

    –Bundle of His divides into left and right bundle branch

    –Ventricles contract
  15. Angi/o, Vas/o, Vascul/o
  16. Aort/o
  17. Arter/o, Arteri/o
  18. Ather/o
    Yellowish plaque
  19. Atri/o
  20. Brachi/o
  21. Cardi/o, Coron/o
  22. Cholesterol/o
  23. My/o
  24. Pericardi/o
  25. Phelb/o, Ven/i, Ven/o
  26. Rrhythm/o
  27. Scler/o
  28. Sphygm/o
  29. Steth/o
  30. Thromb/o
  31. Valv/o, Valvul/o
  32. Varic/o
    Varicose veins
  33. Vascul/o, vas/o
  34. Ven/o, Ven/i
  35. Ventricul/o
  36. Brady-
  37. De-
    Lack of; down; less
  38. Endo-
    In, within
  39. Epi-
    On; above, upon
  40. Intra-
    Within, into
  41. Peri-
  42. Tachy-
  43. Trans-
    Across, through
  44. -al, -ar, -ary, -ic
    pertaining to
  45. -ectasia
    Dilation, widening
  46. -gram
  47. -graph
    Instrument for recording
  48. -graphy
    Process of recording
  49. -icle, -ole, -ule
  50. -ium
    Tissue, structure
  51. -lytic
    Breakdown, separate
  52. -stenosis
    Stricture, tightening
  53. Oxygenation
    Processing of adding oxygen
  54. Deoxygenation
    Process of removing or having a lack of oxygen
  55. Cyanotic
    Pertaining to a blue or purple discoloration due to deoxygenated blood
  56. Ischemic
    Pertaining to a lack of blood flow
  57. Constriction
    Process of narrowing or tightening of a structure
  58. Patent
    Open or exposed
  59. Precordial
    Pertaining to the anterior left chest
  60. Sphygmic
    Pertaining to the pulse
  61. Stenotic
    Pertaining to the condition of narrowing
  62. Supraventricular
    Pertaining to above the ventricles
  63. Thrombotic
    Pertaining to a thrombus or blood clot
  64. Abnormal Heart Rhythms (Dysrhythmias)
    Problems with the conduction or electrical system of the heart
  65. Bradycardia & Heart Block (Atrioventricular block)
    • Failure of conduction of impulses from SA node through the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)
    • Partial to complete heart block
  66. Insertion of a cardiac pacemaker
    Surgically placed mechanical device connected to stimulating leads (electrodes) on or within the heart, programmed to help maintain normal heart rate and rhythm
  67. Flutter
    Rapid, but regular contractions, usually in the atria, is often symptomatic of heart disease
  68. Fibrillation
    Very rapid, random, inefficient and irregular contractions of the heart (>350 beats per min).
  69. Congenital Heart Disease SEPTAL DEFECTS
    • Small holes in the wall between the atria or the ventricles
    • Some close spontaneously; others require open heart surgery to close the hole or a less invasive technique
  70. Acute Coronary Syndromes
    • Chest pain and other signs & symptoms associated with cardiac ischemia
    • Unstable angia- chest pain at rest or of increasing frequency
    • Myocardial infarction
  71. Atherosclerosis
    Buildup of plaque or fatty paste inside arterial walls
  72. Angia Pectoris
    Chest pain or pressure resulting from lack of blood flow to the myocardium
  73. Angiostenosis
    Narrowing of a blood vessel
  74. Aortic Stenosis
    Narrowing of the aortic valve opening
  75. Arteriosclerosis, Arteriosclerotic Heart Disease (ASHD)
    Hardening or loss of elasticity of the arteries
  76. Cardiac Tamponade
    Compression of the heart due to an increase of fluid in the pericardium
  77. Cardiomegaly
    Enlargement of the heart
  78. Cardiomyopathy
    Disease of the heart muscles
  79. Cardiopathy
    Any disease of the heart
  80. Coarctation of the Aorta
    Narrowing of the aorta causing hypertension, ventricular strain, & ischemia
  81. Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
    Inefficiency of cardiac circulation causing edema and pulmonary congestion
  82. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
    Narrowing of coronary arteries causing a decrease of blood flow or ischemia to the myocardium
  83. Coronary Occlusion
    Blockage of coronary vessel often leading to a myocardial infarction
  84. Embolus
    Vascular blockage made up of a thrombus, bateria, air, plaque, and/or other foreign material
  85. Endocarditis
    Inflammation of the endocardium
  86. Hypertension
    Persistently elevated blood pressure
  87. Hypotension
    Blood pressure that is below normal
  88. Ischemia
    Lack of blood flow
  89. Myocarditis
    Inflammation of the heart muscle
  90. Occlusion
    Blockage or closure
  91. Pericarditis
    Inflammation of the pericardial sac around the heart
  92. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)
    Any disorder of the arteries outside of, or peripheral to, the heart
  93. Plaque
    Fat or lipid deposit on an arterial wall
  94. Polyarteritis
    Inflammation of many arteries
  95. Raynaud Disease or Raynaud Syndrome
    Cyanosis of the fingers or toes due to vascular constriction, usually caused by cold temperatures or emotional stress
  96. Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD)
    Valvular disease resulting from rheumatic fever
  97. Stenosis
    Narrowing or stricture of a vessel
  98. Thrombus
    Blood clot
  99. Valvulitis
    Inflammation of the valves of the heart
  100. Aneurysm
    Widening of an arterial wall, usually caused by atherosclerosis & hypertension or congenital weakness in vessel wall, common in aorta
  101. Deep Vein Thrombosis
    • Blood clot forms in large vein, usually in lower leg
    • Results in pulmonary embolism if not treated
  102. Varicose Veins
    • Abnormally swollen and twisted veins, usually in the leg
    • Caused by damaged valves that don't prevent the backflow of blood
    • Blood collects in veins; veins become distended
  103. Cardiac Enzyme Tests
    Blood tests used to measure the cardiac enzyme levels; when such levels are increased, may indicate a myocardial infarction
  104. Cardiac Troponin
    Blood test used to measure the level of a protein that is released in the blood when myocardial cells die
  105. C-reactive Protein (CRP)
    Blood test used to measure the level of inflammation in the body; may indicate conditions that lead to cardiovascular disease
  106. Electrolyte Panel
    • Blood test used to measure the level of sodium, potassium, chloride, & carbon dioxide
    • Used to diagnose a acid-base or pH imbalance that may cause arrhythmias, muscle damage or death
  107. Lipid Panel, Lipid Profile
    Blood test to measure the level of total cholesterol, high-density lipoproterin, low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides, all of which may signal an increased risk of cardiovascular disease
  108. Angioscopy
    Insertion of a catheter with a attached camera to visualize a structure or vessel
  109. Arteriography
    Process of recording an artery after injection of a dye
  110. Coronary Angiography, Cardiac Catheterizaiton
    Process of recording the heart & major vessels after injection of a dye
  111. Ultrasonography
    Use of ultrasonic waves to visualize internal organs
  112. Doppler Sonography (DS)
    Technique using sound waves to record velocity of blood flow
  113. Echocardiography
    Process of recording the structure and function of the heart at rest & with exercise
  114. Vascular Sonography
    Placement of the ultrasound transducer at the tip of a catheter within a blood vessel to assess blood flow
  115. Blood Pressure Monitoring (BP)
    Auscultation of the systolic & diastolic arterial pressure using a stethoscope & a sphygmomanometer
  116. Holter Monitoring
    Portable ECG device is worn for 24 hours to detect cardiac arrhythmias
  117. Pulse
    Rhythmic dilation of an artery with each heart contraction, usually felt at the wrist or neck
  118. Exercise Tolerance Test to Detect Heart's Reaction to Physical Exertion
    Monitor vital signs and ECG rhythms
  119. Cardioversion (defibrillation)
    Use of electricity to stop arrhythmias
  120. Endarterectomy
    Surgical removal of plaque from artery
  121. Extracorporeal Circulation
    Blood circulates through heart-lung machine while heart is being repaired
  122. Phlebectomy
    Excision of a vein
  123. Stent
    Intravascular insertion of a hollow mesh tube designed to keep a vessel open or patent
  124. Mitral Valve Prosthesis
    Valve replacement-surgical replacement of a valve with a biologic or mechanical device
  125. Cardiology
    Medical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of heart disease
  126. Cardiac Electrophysiology
    Medical specialty concerned with the electrical activities of the heart
  127. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    A surgical procedure performed to relieve angina and reduce the risk of death from coronary artery disease. Arteries or veins from elsewhere in the patient's body are grafted to the coronary arteries to bypass atherosclerotic narrowings and improve the blood supply to the coronary circulation supplying the myocardium (heart muscle)
  128. Heart Sounds
    "Lubb" - closure of tricuspid & mitral valves at the beginning of systole

    "Dubb"- closure of aortic & pulmonary valves at the end of systole
  129. Oxygen & the Heart
    Right side of the heart sends Oxygen Deficient blood to the Lungs; returns to the Left side of the heart which then pumps Oxygen Rich blood to ALL PARTS of the body
Card Set:
Med Terms 15
2013-07-03 02:20:49
medical terminology cardiovascular

Lesson 15
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