extra questions 4

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extra questions 4
2010-06-08 02:15:38
extra questions

from online book
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  1. the fibers of the external oblique muscle run downward and forward (as in inserting a hand in a pocket),
    whereas those of the internal oblique muscle go upward and forward
  2. 5-4 The superficial inguinal ring is a
    divergence of fibers (crura) of the external oblique aponeurosis. It
    lies about 1 cm above and lateral to the pubic tubercle and can be
    palpated by invaginating the scrotal skin upward along the spermatic
    cord. An inguinal hernia, especially when indirect (i.e., traversing
    the inguinal canal), may present through the superficial inguinal ring.
  3. he inguinal triangle is bounded by
    the inferior epigastric artery, the lateral border of the rectus, and
    the inguinal ligament. A direct inguinal hernia enters the inguinal
    canal through the inguinal triangle. Excess fluid within the peritoneal
    cavity (ascites) may be removed (tapped), after the bladder has been
    emptied, by inserting a cannula immediately lateral to the rectus well
    above (and hence lateral to the termination of) the inferior epigastric
    artery (see fig. 25-9).
  4. 21-3 The right main bronchus is shorter,
    wider, and more nearly vertical than the left, and it is more likely to
    receive foreign objects.
  5. The cupola is the cervical parietal
    pleura superior to the apex of the lung.
  6. In inspiration, the diaphragm
    contracts, descends, increases the volume and decreases the pressure
    within the thorax, and increases the abdominal pressure. The diaphragm
    is lower when a subject is in the sitting posture than when in the
    erect posture, and patients with difficulty in breathing are more
    comfortable when sitting.

    20-2 What is the vertebrocostal trigone?
    20-2 The vertebrocostal trigone is a
    variable interval between the costal and lumbar parts of the diaphragm.
    The pleura may then be in close relationship to the suprarenal gland
    and kidney.
  7. he serous membranes line the body
    cavities and are reflected over protruding organs as their serous coat.
    The serous membranes are the pleura, pericardium, and peritoneum. The
    tunica vaginalis testis is a (usually) detached extension of the
    peritoneum. Serous membranes consist of mesothelium and connective
    tissue, and they secrete a film of serous exudate.
  8. Pneumothorax is the presence of air in
    the pleural cavity. Air may enter from the lung (e.g., from ruptured
    alveoli) or through the chest wall (e.g., from a perforating injury).
    The lung then collapses.
  9. The right lung is usually heavier,
    shorter, and wider than the left lung, and it generally has three
    rather than two lobes.
  10. What is the inferior limit of the
    lung and pleura?
    22-5 The lung and pleura are generally said
    to cross rib 6 in the midclavicular line and ribs 8 and 10,
    respectively, in the midaxillary line and then to proceed toward the
    spinous processes of T10 and T12 vertebrae, respectively.
  11. What is a bronchopulmonary segment?
    22-7 A bronchopulmonary segment is the
    portion of lung supplied by a third-order bronchus.
  12. What are the classic methods of
    physical examination?
    22-9 The classic methods of physical
    examination are inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation.
    The stethoscope was invented for auscultation by Laennec in 1816.
  13. What is the transverse sinus of the
    23-1 The transverse sinus of the
    pericardium is a passage between the venous end (left atrium and
    superior vena cava) of the heart behind and the arterial end (aorta and
    pulmonary trunk) in front
  14. In which direction does blood flow
    from the atria to the ventricles?
    23-3 Blood flows from the atria to the
    ventricles almost horizontally forward (see fig. 23-3) and
    to the left, especially in the "right heart."
  15. What is the main component of the
    sternocostal surface of the heart?
    23-4 The sternocostal surface of the heart
    is formed mainly by the right ventricle. The chamber least visible from
    the front is the left atrium, of which only the left auricle can be
  16. what is the outflowing part of (a)
    the right ventricle and (b) the left ventricle termed?
    23-7 The conus arteriosus (or infundibulum)
    is the outflowing part of the right ventricle. The left ventricle ends
    in the aortic vestibule.
  17. Which important structure is situated
    at the lower border of the membranous part of the interventricular
    23-8 The atrioventricular bundle is
    situated at the lower border of the membranous part of the
    interventricular septum. The bundle divides, and its limbs straddle the
    muscular part of the septum.
  18. he right free border of the lesser omentum
    contains the bile duct, portal vein, and hepatic artery.
  19. How is the liver divided into right
    and left anatomical lobes?
    28-1 The liver is divided into right and
    left anatomical lobes along the left limb of the "H" formed at the
    porta (see fig. 28-2) and, anteriorly, along the falciform
    ligament. The much larger right lobe includes the caudate and quadrate
    lobes. The porta is the "gate" of the liver, and the "vein of the gate"
    is termed portal.
  20. here is the portal vein formed?
    28-10 The portal vein is formed posterior
    to the neck of the pancreas by the union of the splenic and superior
    mesenteric veins (see fig. 28-8). Portal hypertension (caused by obstruction)
    results in dilation of portal-systemic anastomoses, e.g., at the lower
    end of the esophagus. Uncontrolled hemorrhage from esophageal varices
    can be treated by a portal-systemic shunt, e.g., by anastomosing the
    portal vein with the inferior vena cava (portacaval anastomosis).