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When should doppler use be avoided?
Used for obstetrical doppler are: (5)
- 1. Maternal vessels
- 2. Fetal Vessels
- 3. Fetal ductus venosus
- 4. Fetal heart
- 5. Placenta
What are the 2 basic types of doppler us?
With increasing GA there is a __________________ in the S/D ratio.
How do you calculate Resistive Index?
S-D / S
How do you calculate PI?
S-D / mean
As the vascular resistance increases what happens to the:
They both increase
What happens to the PI as the GA increases?
In normal pregnancies, the umbilical vein venous flow is _________________.
_____________ during fetal breathing.
Some factors related to reduced blood flow to placenta: (4)
- maternal hypertension
- various drugs
- poor nutrition
What would happen to diastolic velocity if placental resistance increased?
How is the resistance arrangement when IUGR head sparing occurs?
- increased resistance AO & umbilical artery
- decreased resistance in fetal middle cerebral artery
Which fetal vessel is studied the most extensively?
The umbilical artery has ______________ resistance flow.
Increase in fetal HR causes ______________ in pulsatility.
Umbilical Artery: S/D ratio <3.0 is normal? T/F
Risks associated with abnormal S/D ratio include:
- preterm delivery
- decreased birthweight
- decreased amniotic fluid
- Risks associated with admission to NICU
When assessing umbilical artery you should locate a spot close to fetal abdomen/placenta?
___________ or ___________ of diastolic flow is a significant finding and indicates placental ____________.
- absence or reversal
Elevated S/D ratios are associated with: (3)
- abnormal karyotype
- maternal HTN
- severe growth restriction
Fetal doppler of MCA is used to detect "________ _______ ______"
brain sparing effect
MCA has _______ cerebral blood flow and little diastolic flow
MCA acronym HABS stands for
Which are the highest velocities found in fetal cardiovascular system?
- Diastolic 6-30cm/sec
- Flow Rt to Lt
Maternal uterine artery gives off branches near ?
- internal os
- sup lat along corpus
ant ---> external iliac
When do you sample MUA?
After 12 weeks the MUA has a ____________resistance flow pattern
What is an abnormal S/D ratio of MUA?
above indicates increased vascular resistance and decreased blood supply to uterus
notching on diastolic is bad
What may be one of the earliest signs of IUGR especially if there is maternal HTN?
arcuate artery with reduced flow
Umbilical artery & vein reflect changes in the _______________ vascular bed.
How many weeks before fetus appears to be in trouble may doppler parameters become abnormal?
4 or more
Studies have shown that ___________________ as part of the OB management has resulted in a reduction of emergency c-sections?
In severe PIH doppler studies correlate well with _______ ______.
You can see doppler changes 24hrs before/after nonstress test?
In discordant twins, doppler has/has not proven to be more useful than EFW.
With cardiac anomalies, doppler can gage systolic function by measuring: (3)
- aortic volume
- systolic velocities
Smoking can increase maternal HR and BP therefore increasing fetal ____________ and _____________blood flow
Doppler of umbilical artery that is suggestive of distress or compromise would be?
absent or reversal of flow