NCLEX Electrolyte Imbalances

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Author:
sscott
ID:
225872
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NCLEX Electrolyte Imbalances
Updated:
2013-07-03 19:02:03
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NCLEX Electrolyte Imbalances
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Electrolyte Imbalances
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  1. Hypokalemia
    Risks:GI loss, diuretics, aminoglycosides, decreased intake.

    Symptoms: Muscle weakness, fatigue, N/V, dysrhythmias, flat T waves (ECG)

    • Treatment: ECG monitor, administer K+, teach dietary sources of K+.
    • NEVER give K+ IV bolus; MUST dilute!
    • No P = No K+!
  2. Hyperkalemia
    Risks: Tissue injury, K+-sparing diuretics, renal failure, adrenal insufficiency, increased intake.

    Symptoms: Muscle cramps, weakness, paralysis, bradycardia, dysrhythmias, tall T waves (ECG)

    • Treatment: ECG monitor, Kayexalate, 50% glucose with insulin, Ca++ Gluconate, loop diuretics, dialysis.
    • BS assessment with Kayexalate.
  3. Hyponatremia
    Risks: GI loss, SIADH, adrenal insufficiency, diuretics, water intox, decreased intake.

    Symptoms: Weakness, lethargy, confusion, seizures, coma.

    • Treatment: Daily weight, assess CNS changes, I/O, administer IVF - hypertonic (acute), isotonic (restore volume), seizure precautions, teach Na+-rich food, if etiology is FVE - restrict fluids.
    • Risk with hypertonic solutions - cerebral edema.
  4. Hypernatremia
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  5. Hypocalcemia
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  6. Hypercalcemia
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  7. Hypomagnesemia
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  8. Hypermagnesemia
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  9. Hypophosphatemia
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  10. Hyperphosphatemia
    • Risks:
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