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What makes up the limbic system?
- anterior thalamic nuclei
- limbic cortex
What is a short reflex vs. a long reflex?
Short reflex goes only through the PNS and does not travel through the CNS.
Long reflex passes through the CNS (brain and/or spinal cord).
What does the limbic system do with regards to homeostatic response?
Integrates homeostatic response with memory.
Example: Locking up the brakes on the car in near crash produces future response as well.
What are Chromaffin Cells?
Sympathetic nerves release ACh on these cells and they release Catecholamines into the blood stream.
What does the adrenal medulla make?
Catecholamines (only site for Epinephrine), PNMT, Cortisol
which are the paravertebral ganglia?
which are the prevertebral ganglia?
which are the terminal ganglia?
- Para = Sympathetic chain ganglia
- Pre = Collateral chain ganglia (Celiac, Superior/Inferior Mesenteric)
- Terminal = Eye and Facial Glands
ANS innervation controls the activity of what organs?
- Cardiac Muscle
- Smooth Muscle
- Adipose Tissue
True / False the Smooth muscle of blood vessels found everywhere (except brain, heart, and genitals) has both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation?
False. It has only sympathetic innervation
The brain, heart, genitals have both.
Which division innervates Glands?
Which division innervates Adipose?
Sympathetic Only (Beta-3 Adrenergic)
In a neuroeffector Junction a varicosity is analogous to what in a neuromuscular junction?
Where does MAO degrade Catecholamines?
Level of Mitochondria
Where are the preganglionic neurons located in the Sympathetic Nervous System?
Where do Preganglionic Sympathetic Neurons synapse? (specific regions)
- Sympathetic Chain ganglia
- Collateral Ganglia
- Adrenal Medullae (chromaffin cells)
Alpha 1 Receptor
- Higher affinity for NE over E
- Causes smooth muscle contraction
- Antagonists (A blockers) lower B.P. (Prazosin)
- Causes sweat gland secretion
What does Prazosin do?
- Antagonizes Alpha 1 receptors
- Alpha Blocker
- Leads to less smooth muscle contraction (passive dilation)
- Decrease in Blood pressure
Alpha 2 Receptor
- Higher affinity for NE over E
- Inhibits GI tract
Beta 1 Receptor Properties
- Equal Affinity NE and E
- Increases contractility of Heart and Heart Rate
- Antagonists (Beta Blockers) lower B.P.
- Located on the atrial and ventricular myocardiocytes.
What do Atenolol and Metoprolol do?
- Lower Blood Pressure
- weaken the pump
- Beta Blocker
- The first line of treatment to drop B.P.
Beta 2 Receptor Properties?
- Greater Affinity for Epi over Norepi
- Cause Smooth Muscle Relaxation
- Agonists: Albuterol, Salmeterol stimulate bronchodilation
What does sympathetic nervous system do to your pupils?
What does sympathetic nervous system do to your heart?
Increases chronotropy, dromotropy, lusitropy, inotropy
What does sympathetic nervous system do to your lungs?
What does sympathetic nervous system do to your GI tract?
What does sympathetic nervous system do to your adrenal medullae?
Stimulates (produce epi)
What does sympathetic nervous system do to your erector pilli muscles?
What does sympathetic nervous system do to your blood vessels in skin?
Where does most sympathetic innervation occur on heart?
from the bottom of atria down.
Where does most parasympathetic innervation occur on the heart?
- Chronotropy = Heart Rate
- Dromotropy = Conduction Rate
- Inotropy = Contractility
- Lusitropy = Speed at which heart relaxes
How much smooth muscle do arterioles have?
- Arterioles are loaded with smooth muscle
- Capillaries have NO smooth muscle
2 agonists of Alpha 1 Receptors
Name 3 drugs that Lower B.P by inhibiting influx of Calcium into smooth muscle cell and preventing smooth muscle contraction (Calcium Channel Blockers)
What is the effect of epinephrine on a B-2 receptor of a smooth muscle cell?
- B-2 activates Gs
- Gs Increases cAMP conc.
- cAMP inhibits MLCK
- leads to a relaxation of SM
- "Beta 2 Mediated Dilation"
Parasympathetic effector cells have what type of receptors?
What does parasympathetic nervous system do to your pupils?
What does parasympathetic nervous system do to your heart?
slows it down
What does parasympathetic nervous system do to your lungs?
What does parasympathetic nervous system do to your GI tract?
Excitatory or Inhibitory
- M1 = Excitatory
- M2 = Inhibitory
What does Atropine do?
Inhibits M2 receptors. Leading to increase in H.R.
What does ACh do to M3 receptor in Endothelial cell?
- ACh binds to M3 receptor
- activates Ca/Calmodulin complex
- activates NO synthase
- convert arginine into NO using Oxygen
What does Nitric Oxide (NO) do?
- NO acts as a 2nd messenger and activates Guanylate Cyclase increasing cGMP conc.
- cGMP causes Smooth muscle relaxation
What does Viagra do?
Inhibits cGMP phosphodiesterase. This reduces the breakdown of cGMP to GMP and leads to smooth muscle relaxation.
Where are the 2 main baroreceptors?
- Carotid Sinus Baroreceptor (most important)
- Aortic Baroreceptor
What do Baroreceptors do?
- Send afferent info to brain stem
- lead to lower
Where are the 3 main chemoreceptors located and what are they most sensitive to?
- Carotid Bodies (P CO2)
- Aortic Bodies (P CO2)
- Medullary Chemoreceptors (H+ CO2 derived though)
4 layers of small intestine from Deepest to most superficial.
- Mucosa (epith, lamina, muscle)
- Submucosa (glands, blood vessels, nerves)
- Musclaris (sm, nerves)
- Serosa (CT, peritoneum)
3 Phases of digestion?
Cephalic - sight / taste of food triggers secretion of gastric enzymes.
Gastric - Food has entered and distended stomach gastric secretions continue.
Intestinal - chyme has entered the duodenum so gastric secretion is inhibited.
What is the triad of near reflex?
- Accomodation (curving lens, B2 relax, M3 constrict)
- Miosis (pupil constriction, A1 = dilate, M3 = constrict)
What is mydriasis?
Dilation of the pupil.
What type of lens correct hyperopia?
What type of lens correct myopia?
Does a myopic person need a perscription with positive or negative diopters?
Negative (glasses feature a diverging lens)
Does a hyperopic person need a perscription with positive or negative diopters?
positive diopters (glasses feature a converging lens)
3 values for eye prescription?
- Sphere: amount of near/far sightedness (D)
- Cylinder: Amount of astigmatism (D)
- Axis: angle of astigmatism (degress)
What type of innervation causes pupillary constriction?
Parasympathetic stimulation of M3 receptors.
What type of innervation causes pupillary dilation?
Sympathetic stimulation via Alpha 1.
(muscle constricts, causing pupil to dilate)
What do outer hair cells of ear do?
Stiffen/Lengthen and amplify the signal.
what do inner hair cells of ear do?
- move up and down with the movement of the basilar membrane
- Perception of noise and sound
Basilar Membrane Thickness at Base / Apex?
- Base = thinnest (High frequency sounds)
- Apex = thickest (Low frequency sounds)