Bio Exam 3

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kgeary
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225937
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Bio Exam 3
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2013-07-05 12:28:00
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Bio Exam 3
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  1. What makes up the limbic system?
    • hippocampus
    • amygdala
    • anterior thalamic nuclei
    • septum
    • habenula
    • limbic cortex
    • fornix
  2. What is a short reflex vs. a long reflex?
    Short reflex goes only through the PNS and does not travel through the CNS.

    Long reflex passes through the CNS (brain and/or spinal cord).
  3. What does the limbic system do with regards to homeostatic response?
    Integrates homeostatic response with memory.  

    Example: Locking up the brakes on the car in near crash produces future response as well.
  4. What are Chromaffin Cells?
    Sympathetic nerves release ACh on these cells and they release Catecholamines into the blood stream.
  5. What does the adrenal medulla make?
    Catecholamines (only site for Epinephrine), PNMT, Cortisol
  6. which are the paravertebral ganglia?
    which are the prevertebral ganglia?
    which are the terminal ganglia?
    • Para = Sympathetic chain ganglia
    • Pre = Collateral chain ganglia (Celiac, Superior/Inferior Mesenteric)
    • Terminal = Eye and Facial Glands
  7. ANS innervation controls the activity of what organs?
    • Cardiac Muscle
    • Smooth Muscle
    • Glands
    • Adipose Tissue
  8. True / False the Smooth muscle of blood vessels found everywhere (except brain, heart, and genitals) has both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation?
    False. It has only sympathetic innervation

    The brain, heart, genitals have both.
  9. Which division innervates Glands?
    Sympathetic Only
  10. Which division innervates Adipose?
    Sympathetic Only (Beta-3 Adrenergic)
  11. In a neuroeffector Junction a varicosity is analogous to what in a neuromuscular junction?
    Terminal Knob
  12. Where does MAO degrade Catecholamines?
    Level of Mitochondria
  13. Where are the preganglionic neurons located in the Sympathetic Nervous System?
    Thoracolumbar region
  14. Where do Preganglionic Sympathetic Neurons synapse? (specific regions)
    • Sympathetic Chain ganglia
    • Collateral Ganglia
    • Adrenal Medullae (chromaffin cells)
  15. Alpha 1 Receptor
    • Higher affinity for NE over E
    • Causes smooth muscle contraction
    • Antagonists (A blockers) lower B.P. (Prazosin)
    • Causes sweat gland secretion
  16. What does Prazosin do?
    • Antagonizes Alpha 1 receptors
    • Alpha Blocker
    • Leads to less smooth muscle contraction (passive dilation)
    • Decrease in Blood pressure
  17. Alpha 2 Receptor
    • Higher affinity for NE over E
    • Inhibits GI tract
  18. Beta 1 Receptor Properties
    • Equal Affinity NE and E
    • Increases contractility of Heart and Heart Rate
    • Antagonists (Beta Blockers) lower B.P.
    • Located on the atrial and ventricular myocardiocytes.
  19. What do Atenolol and Metoprolol do?
    • Lower Blood  Pressure
    • weaken the pump
    • Beta Blocker
    • The first line of treatment to drop B.P.
  20. Beta 2 Receptor Properties?
    • Greater Affinity for Epi over Norepi
    • Cause Smooth Muscle Relaxation
    • Bronchodilation
    • Agonists: Albuterol, Salmeterol stimulate bronchodilation
  21. What does sympathetic nervous system do to your pupils?
    Dilates
  22. What does sympathetic nervous system do to your heart?
    Increases chronotropy, dromotropy, lusitropy, inotropy
  23. What does sympathetic nervous system do to your lungs?
    dilates them
  24. What does sympathetic nervous system do to your GI tract?
    Inhibits
  25. What does sympathetic nervous system do to your adrenal medullae?
    Stimulates (produce epi)
  26. What does sympathetic nervous system do to your erector pilli muscles?
    contracts
  27. What does sympathetic nervous system do to your blood vessels in skin?
    constrict
  28. Where does most sympathetic innervation occur on heart?
    from the bottom of atria down.
  29. Where does most parasympathetic innervation occur on the heart?
    above Atria
  30. Chronotropy?
    Dromotropy?
    Inotropy?
    Lusitropy?
    • Chronotropy = Heart Rate
    • Dromotropy = Conduction Rate
    • Inotropy = Contractility
    • Lusitropy = Speed at which heart relaxes
  31. How much smooth muscle do arterioles have?
    Capillaries?
    • Arterioles are loaded with smooth muscle
    • Capillaries have NO smooth muscle
  32. 2 agonists of Alpha 1 Receptors
    • Phenylephrine
    • Pseudoephedrine
  33. Name 3 drugs that Lower B.P by inhibiting influx of Calcium into smooth muscle cell and preventing smooth muscle contraction (Calcium Channel Blockers)
    • Nifedipine
    • Verapamil
    • Diltiazem
  34. What is the effect of epinephrine on a B-2 receptor of a smooth muscle cell?
    • B-2 activates Gs
    • Gs Increases cAMP conc.
    • cAMP inhibits MLCK
    • leads to a relaxation of SM
    • "Beta 2 Mediated Dilation"
  35. Parasympathetic effector cells have what type of receptors?
    muscarinic
  36. What does parasympathetic nervous system do to your pupils?
    constricts
  37. What does parasympathetic nervous system do to your heart?
    slows it down
  38. What does parasympathetic nervous system do to your lungs?
    constricts them
  39. What does parasympathetic nervous system do to your GI tract?
    activates it
  40. Excitatory or Inhibitory
    Muscarinic 1?
    Muscarinic 2?
    • M1 = Excitatory
    • M2 = Inhibitory
  41. What does Atropine do?
    Inhibits M2 receptors.  Leading to increase in H.R.
  42. What does ACh do to M3 receptor in Endothelial cell?
    • ACh binds to M3 receptor
    • activates Ca/Calmodulin complex
    • activates NO synthase
    • convert arginine into NO using Oxygen
  43. What does Nitric Oxide (NO) do?
    • NO acts as a 2nd messenger and activates Guanylate Cyclase increasing cGMP conc.
    • cGMP causes Smooth muscle relaxation
  44. What does Viagra do?
    Inhibits cGMP phosphodiesterase.  This reduces the breakdown of cGMP to GMP and leads to smooth muscle relaxation.
  45. Where are the 2 main baroreceptors?
    • Carotid Sinus Baroreceptor (most important)
    • Aortic Baroreceptor
  46. What do Baroreceptors do?
    • Send afferent info to brain stem
    • lead to lower
  47. Where are the 3 main chemoreceptors located and what are they most sensitive to?
    • Carotid Bodies (P CO2)
    • Aortic Bodies (P CO2)
    • Medullary Chemoreceptors (H+ CO2 derived though)
  48. 4 layers of small intestine from Deepest to most superficial.
    • Mucosa (epith, lamina, muscle)
    • Submucosa (glands, blood vessels, nerves)
    • Musclaris (sm, nerves)
    • Serosa (CT, peritoneum)
  49. 3 Phases of digestion?
    Cephalic - sight / taste of food triggers secretion of gastric enzymes.

    Gastric - Food has entered and distended stomach gastric secretions continue.

    Intestinal - chyme has entered the duodenum so gastric secretion is inhibited.
  50. What is the triad of near reflex?
    • Accomodation (curving lens, B2 relax, M3 constrict)
    • Miosis (pupil constriction, A1 = dilate, M3 = constrict)
    • Convergence
  51. What is mydriasis?
    Dilation of the pupil.
  52. What type of lens correct hyperopia?
    Converging lens
  53. What type of lens correct myopia?
    Diverging lens
  54. Does a myopic person need a perscription with positive or negative diopters?
    Negative (glasses feature a diverging lens)
  55. Does a hyperopic person need a perscription with positive or negative diopters?
    positive diopters (glasses feature a converging lens)
  56. 3  values for eye prescription?
    • Sphere: amount of near/far sightedness (D)
    • Cylinder: Amount of astigmatism (D)
    • Axis: angle of astigmatism (degress)
  57. What type of innervation causes pupillary constriction?
    Parasympathetic stimulation of M3 receptors.
  58. What type of innervation causes pupillary dilation?
    Sympathetic stimulation via Alpha 1.  

    (muscle constricts, causing pupil to dilate)
  59. What do outer hair cells of ear do?
    Stiffen/Lengthen and amplify the signal.
  60. what do inner hair cells of ear do?
    • move up and down with the movement of the basilar membrane
    • Perception of noise and sound
  61. Basilar Membrane Thickness at Base / Apex?
    • Base = thinnest (High frequency sounds)
    • Apex = thickest (Low frequency sounds)

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