Emergency Care in the Streets - Ch27 - Toxicology - Vital Vocab

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mac519
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Emergency Care in the Streets - Ch27 - Toxicology - Vital Vocab
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2013-07-05 19:44:58
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Toxicology
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Toxicology Vital Vocab
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  1. A state of physical and psychological addiction to ethanol.
    alcoholism
  2. A class of drugs that increase alertness and excitation ( stimulants); includes methamphetamine ( crank or ice), methylenedioxyamphetamine ( MDA, Adam), and methylene-dioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA, Eve, ecstasy).
    amphetamines
  3. Something that counteracts the action of something else; in relation to drugs, a drug that is an antagonist has an affinity for a cell receptor and, by binding to it, the cell is prevented from responding.
    antagonist
  4. Potent sedative- hypnotics historically used as sleep aids, antianxiety drugs, and as part of the regimen for seizure control.
    barbiturates
  5. The family of sedative- hypnotics most commonly used to treat anxiety, seizures, and alcohol withdrawal.
    benzodiazepines
  6. A common houseplant that contains caladium oxalate crystals; ingestion leads to nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
    caladium
  7. A seed that contains the poison ricin; causes a variety of toxic effects: burning of the mouth and throat; nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and severe stomach pains; prostration; failing vision; and kidney failure, which is the usual cause of death.
    castor bean
  8. Chemicals that are acids or alkalis; cause direct chemical injury to the tissues they contact.
    caustics
  9. A stimulant; a naturally occurring alkaloid that is extracted from the Erythroxylon coca plant leaves found in South America.
    cocaine
  10. A severe withdrawal syndrome seen in people with alcoholism who are deprived of ethyl alcohol; characterized by restlessness, fever, sweating, disorientation, agitation, and seizures; can be fatal if untreated.
    delirium tremens ( DTs)
  11. A common houseplant that resembles “ elephant ears”; ingestion leads to burns of the mouth and tongue and, possibly, paralysis of the vocal cords and nausea and vomiting; in severe cases, may be edema of the tongue and larynx, leading to airway compromise.
    dieffenbachia
  12. Substance that has some therapeutic effect ( such as reducing inflammation, fighting bacteria, or producing euphoria) when given in the appropriate circumstances and in the appropriate dose.
    drug
  13. Any use of drugs that causes physical, psychological, economic, legal, or social harm to the user or others affected by the user’s behavior.
    drug abuse
  14. A chronic disorder characterized by the compulsive use of a substance that results in physical, psychological, or social harm to the user who continues to use the substance despite the harm.
    drug addiction
  15. A plant that contains cardiac glycosides used in making digitalis; ingestion of leaves causes nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, hyperkalemia, and a variety of dysrhythmias.
    foxglove
  16. The situation in which there is a physical tolerance and psychological dependence on a drug or drugs.
    habituation
  17. An agent that produces false perceptions in any one of the five senses.
    hallucinogen
  18. Compounds made up principally of hydrogen and carbon atoms mostly obtained from the distillation of petroleum.
    hydrocarbons
  19. In relation to drugs, illegal drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, and LSD.
    illicit
  20. A perennial flowering shrub with clusters of red berries that can lead to serious and even fatal poisoning. Also known as red sage or wild sage; ingestion causes stomach upsets, muscle weakness, shock, and, sometimes, death.
    lantana
  21. In relation to drugs, legalized drugs such as coffee, alcohol, and tobacco.
    licit
  22. The cornerstone drug for the treatment of bipolar disorder.
    lithium
  23. The dried leaves and flower buds of the Cannabis sativa plant that are smoked to achieve a high.
    marijuana
  24. A highly addictive drug in the amphetamine family.
    methamphetamine
  25. Psychiatric medication used primarily to treat atypical depression by increasing nor-epinephrine and serotonin levels in the central nervous system.
    monoamine oxidase inhibitors ( MAOIs)
  26. The generic term for opiates and opioids, drugs that act as a CNS depressant and produce insensibility or stupor.
    narcotic
  27. Various alkaloids derived from the opium or poppy plant.
    opiate
  28. A synthetic narcotic not derived from opium.
    opioid
  29. A class of chemical found in many insecticides used in agriculture and in the home.
    organophosphates
  30. A physiologic state of adaptation to a drug, usually characterized by tolerance to the drug’s effects and a withdrawal syndrome if use of the drug is stopped, especially abruptly.
    physical dependence
  31. A substance whose chemical action could damage structures or impair function when introduced into the body.
    poison
  32. Enhancement of the effect of one drug by another drug.
    potentiation
  33. The emotional state of craving a drug to maintain a feeling of well-being.
    psychological dependence
  34. The destruction of muscle tissue leading to a release of potassium and myoglobin.
    rhabdomyolysis
  35. Aspirin-like drugs.
    salicylates
  36. A drug used to reduce anxiety, calm agitated patients, and help produce drowsiness and sleep ( CNS depressants).
    sedative-hypnotic
  37. A class of antidepressants that inhibit the re-uptake of serotonin.
    selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors ( SSRIs)
  38. An idiosyncratic complication that occurs with antidepressant therapy in which patients have lower extremity muscle rigidity, confusion or disorientation, and/ or agitation.
    serotonin syndrome
  39. An illicit drug consisting of a blend of synthetic cannibinoids; it can produce delirium and short- and long-term psychotic effects.
    Spice
  40. The action of two substances such as drugs, in which the total effects are greater than the sum of the independent effects of the two substances.
    synergism
  41. A naturally occurring alkaloid found in a variety of plants ( such as tea leaves).
    theophylline
  42. Physiologic adaptation to the effects of a drug such that increasingly larger doses of the drug are required to achieve the same effect.
    tolerance
  43. Medical emergencies caused by toxic agents such as poison.
    toxicologic emergencies
  44. The syndrome-like symptoms of any given class or group of poisonous agents.
    toxidrome
  45. A group of drugs used to treat severe depression and manage pain; minimal dosing errors can cause toxic results.
    tricyclic antidepressants ( TCAs)
  46. A predictable set of signs and symptoms, usually involving altered central nervous system activity, that occurs after the abrupt cessation of a drug or after rapidly decreasing the usual dosage of a drug.
    withdrawal syndrome

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