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a descriptive word that modifies a noun or pronoun.
ex. soccer, young
a pronoun replaces a noun so that the noun does not have to be repeated.
- I, you, she, he, it,them,they,you,yours,his,hers,me,mine,my
a word that describes a verb and indicates when, how, where, why or how much.
- ex. The quarterback threw the football hard.
- Hard describes the verb threw and answers the question "how?"
An article is a kind of adjective which is always used with and gives some information about a noun, either indefinite (a and an) or indefinite (the)
A group of words that are related and contain both a subject and verb
The noun or pronoun that received the action of the verb and answers the question whom, or what.
ex. subject + verb + what? or who? = direct object.
ex. verbal + what? or who? = direct object
A preposition sits in front of (is “pre-positioned” before) its object.
ex. a word as by, at, to, or from that gives additional information, usually in relationship to something else in the sentence
object of the preposition
the noun, pronoun, phrase or clause to which the preposition refers.
ex. after several minutes we located the key for the door.
- after (preposition) minutes (object.
- for (preposition) door (object)
a group of words that are related but do not contain a verb and a subject together
a pronoun used to indicated ownership
a noun or pronoun that performs the action of the verb. If a sentence contains a verb of being a linking verb the subject of the sentence is the noun or pronoun being described.
ex. be,feel,become,or look.
a noun that a pronoun refers back to. A pronoun and its antecedent must agree in number(singular or plural).
ex. mom went to the store before I could remind her to buy ingredients for my favorite dish, her special spicy spaghetti.
- guided tour-noun
- he or she- pronoun
Using a persons direct words
Tells about what a person has said, rather than you telling about it.
Used in direct dialoge by quotation marks and a comma after what the person has said, then closed quotation marks.
ex. Mark said, "he is coming over."
If quoted material occurs at the end of a sentence, a period should be placed inside the closing remarks
If quoted material occurs in the middle of a sentence, a comma should be inserted within the quotation marks
If the quotation marks a question or an exclamation point then it should be included within the quotation marks.
If a question mark or exclamation point marks applies to the whole sentence, then it should be placed outside the quotation marks.
A writers point of view
- First person
- second person
- third person
First person point of view
the narrator is a character within the story.
nonfiction--the character is the author
fiction- the narrator maybe any of the characters in the story.
ex. a diary entry
second person point of view
text that is written using "you".
Informal for academic writing. Used more in textbooks, study guides, letters or email.
ex. a letter
Third person point of view
used in formal writings, the narrator of the story uses references of other characters in the story.
ex. history of the American Revolution
are words that join two or more words, phrases, or clauses so that each conjoined element is equal.
- showing the sentences to have the same weight.
- ex. for,and,nor,but,or,yet,
are words that join two or more clauses and showing independence of the other.
Can show stress....
ex. because,though,although,as, as if, when, and while
the making of a noun from a verb, adverb, or adjective.
ex. He had a negative reaction to the nutritionists presentation.
show an action performed by the subject of the sentence.
ex. He reacted negatively to the nutritionist presentation.
a past particle that shifts the action of a sentence from the subject to the object in the sentence.
ex. The dog chewed the bone.
verb on the subject ex.
The bone was chewed by the dog.
formal settings where no subject or actor is known.
The bone was chewed.
words surrounding an unfamiliar word that can help in discerning the meaning of the unfamiliar word.
the definition of the unfamiliar word is given in the sentence.
ex. he used a type of file known as a rasp.
a description of the unfamiliar word is given in the sentence.
ex. Allen is a malecontent, he is a dissatisfied person.
examples of unfamiliar words are given in a sentence.
ex. The menu list such delicacies as frog legs, octopi, and chocholate flavored worms.
words with the same meaning.
ex. the ophthalmologist ,or eye doctor, prescribed eyedrops
words with the opposite meaning.
ex. Unlike the life in the city, life in Damascus was a quaint existence
is used in a sentence to help give meaning to the unfamiliar word.
ex. Elliot is wealthy and generous as is his father, who is a philanthropist.
an unfamiliar word is contrasted to known words of phrases.ex. The instructor often deviate from the topic, rather than remain focused on the subject.
an unfamiliar word that is defined in the sentence through an explanation of a situation.
ex. He was awarded a degree posthumously; he died a month before graduation.
- ia,y--state of condition
- ic,ical,ac-having to do with or pertaining to
- ism- belief in
- ology- the study of
- or,er- one who takes part in
common root words
- therm- heat
simple sentence structure
is a sentence that contains only one clause a group of words that are related and contain both a subject and verb) that has a complete meaning.
a clause ( a group of words that are related and contain both a subject and verb)that has a complete meaning.
ex.I am going away from this noisy, crowded cafeteria
a clause that is made dependent or incomplete because of the addition of a subordinating conjunction.
I am going. Don't cry. Never fear. I'll return.
differs from a simple sentence because it contains two independent clauses joined together with a coordinating conjunction or a semicolon.
ex. I enjoy watching golf matches on television, especially on Sundays near the end of the tournanamets, but I also like to play golf with friends at our local nine-hole course.
is a independent and dependent clause put together.
ex. when I was younger, I asked for a space suit every year for christmas.
Organized and logical paragraphs
Topic sentence--usually found in the beginning of a paragraph
Support--explains the main topic of the paragraph through specific detailed examples
Analysis--concluding remarks about the topic
Transition--smooth movement from one point to the next.
Periodic sentence--in which the meaning or point of the sentence is delayed until the end, usually in the form of an independent clause or a
cumulative sentence--(loose sentence) in which the independent clause of the sentence comes first and is followed by modifiers that further develop the initial idea.
Spelling and punctuation
ie and ei words
i before e, except after c or when sounded like a
some exceptions pg 197
suffixes for words ending in "e" and added suffix is a consonant
If a word ends in a silent e and the added suffix begins with a consonant, then keep the letter e when adding the suffix.
suffixes for words ending in "e" and added suffix begins with a vowel
If a word ends in a silent e and the added suffix begins with a vowel, then drop the e when adding the suffix.
keep the e if the word ends in ce or ge and the added suffix is able or ous, then keep the letter e.
suffixes for words ending in y.
If a word ends in a y preceded by a vowel, keep the y when adding a suffix.
- journey+ed= journeyed
suffixes for words ending in y. If a word ends in a y preceded by a consonant, change the y to an i before adding a suffix.
- magnify+cent= magnificent
suffixes for words ending in y.
If a word ends in a y preceded by a consonant and the suffix being added is ing, then keep the y.
- hurry+ing= hurrying
suffixes for words ending in a consonant-vowel-consonant pattern.
If a word has one syllable and ends with a consonant-vowel-consonant pattern, then double the finals consonant before adding a suffix that begins with a vowel.
suffixes for words ending in a consonant-vowel-consonant pattern.
If a work has more than one syllable, but the accent is on the last syllable, then double the final consonant before adding a suffix that begins with a vowel.
- corral+ed= corrallated
Suffixes for words ending in c
If a suffix that begins with e,i, or y is added, then a letter k should be inserted after the letter c.
Words ending in
- emceed supercede accede
- exceed antecede
- proceed concede
- succeed intercede
Words ending in able
- If a root word is a complete word add "-able"
- If the root word ends in "e", drop the e and add -able.
Exceptions to words ending in -ible
If a root word is not complete word add "-ible".
- geopgraphical locations
- cardinal directions
- government bodies
- jistorical events
- days of the week
- special events
- calendar items
- rank of honor
- family relationships (uncle)
- seasons "if personalized or an event"
Do not capitalize
- cardinal directions ex. (drive east or western Kansas)
- a title or rank after it follows a name
- family relationships when proceeded by a possessive (my,her,your, name)
- Deities when spoken of gods in general
are used to suggest hesitation, attempt to conceal something, signal a trailing or unfinished thought.
- any two words or phrases in a series to three or more should be separated by a comma.
- ex. red,green,and yellow balloons were chosen for decorations.
introductory yes and no
a city from a state and after the state
day and date. ex Friday, January 17, 2011
between two related independent clauses
- conjunctive adverbs such as: however or therefore that connects equal ranked elements
- a series of elements that contains more than one comma.
ex. He is annoying; he has a bold, obdurate personality; and he delights in the displeasure of others.
Use a hyphen to divide a word at the end of a line when is is necessary for stylistic purposes and the entire word will not fit in the line.
except: names and one syllable words.
spelled-out compounds ex. thirty-three-year-old man
two-thirds majority ex. forty-four
prefix to a proper noun or adjective ex. mid-August or pre-Renaissance
- well-known artists
used to enclose supplementary or explanatory material that interrupts the main sentence. All question marks and exclamation points should be entered within the parentheses.
If the material within a pair of parentheses is a complete sentence that is not located within another sentence, a period should be added before the closing parenthesis.
ex. I haven't been to the movies in a year. (It is too expensive.)
If the parentheses occur within a sentence, a period before the closing parenthesis is unnecssary.
I don't want anything to eat right now (had a bad day).
Quotation marks "".
Use quotation marks to enclose the exact words of a speaker or anything taken from a text or other copyrighted source.
Use to enclose titles of chapters, articles, short poems, short stories, songs, plays and essays.
to form the possessive case of a plural noun that ends in an s, it is generally considered appropriate to add only the apostrophe.
ex. the trees' leaves looked beautiful.
- use in certain expressions of time.
- ex. a week's vacation.
to show omission of letters or numbers as in contractions or dates.
ex. can't or class of '05