Chapter 8 - Motivation and Emotion

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skoolj
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226212
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Chapter 8 - Motivation and Emotion
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2013-07-07 15:35:04
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psychology vocab
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  1. Motivation
    The factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms.
  2. Instincts
    Inborn patterns of behavior that are biologically determined rather than learned.
  3. Drive-reduction Approaches to Motivation
    Theories suggesting that a lack of a basic biological requirement such as water produces a drive to obtain that requirement (in this case, the thirst drive).
  4. Drive
    Motivational tension, or arousal, that energizes behavior to fulfill a need.
  5. Homeostasis
    The body's tendency to maintain a steady internal state.
  6. Arousal Approaches to Motivation
    The belief that we try to maintain certain levels of stimulation and activity increasing or reducing them as necessary.
  7. Incentive Approaches to Motivation
    Theories suggesting that motivation stems from the desire to obtain valued external goals, or incentives.
  8. Cognitive Approaches to Motivation
    Theories suggesting that motivation is a product of people's thoughts, expectations, and goals - their cognitions.
  9. Self-Actualization
    A state of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential in their own unique way.
  10. Obesity
    Body weight that is more than 20% above the average weight for a person of a particular height.
  11. Weight Set Point
    The particular level of weight that the body strives to maintain.
  12. Metabolism
    The rate at which food is converted to energy and expended by the body.
  13. Anorexia Nervosa
    A severe eating disorder in which people may refuse to eat while denying that their behavior and appearance - which can become skeleton-like - are unusual.
  14. Bulimia
    A disorder in which a person binges on large quantities of food, followed by efforts to purge the food through vomiting or other means.
  15. Need for Achievement
    A stable, learned characteristic in which a person obtains satisfaction by striving for and attaining a level of excellence.
  16. Need for Affiliation
    An interest in establishing and maintaining relationships with other people.
  17. Need for Power
    A tendency to seek impact, control, or influence over others and to be seen as a powerful individual.
  18. Emotions
    Feelings that generally have both physiological and cognitive elements and that influence behavior.
  19. James-Lange Theory of Emotion
    The belief that emotional experience is a reaction to bodily events occurring as a result of an external situation ("I feel sad because I am crying").
  20. Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
    The belief that both physiological arousal and emotional experience are produced simultaneously by the same nerve stimulus.
  21. Schachter-Singer Theory of Emotion
    The belief that emotions are determined jointly by a nonspecific kind of physiological arousal and its interpretation, based on environmental cues.
  22. Facial-Affect Program
    Activation of a set of nerve impulses that make the face display the appropriate expression.
  23. Facial-feedback Hypothesis
    The hypothesis that facial expressions not only reflect emotional experience but also help determine how people experience and label emotions.

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