EKG etiologies

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  1. What is the etiology of a wandering atrial pacemaker
    • Idiopathic (especially in young males)
    • Changes in vagal tone
    • Digoxin toxicity
    • Inflammation of atrial tissue
    • Valvular heart disease
  2. What is that etiology of multifocal atrial tachycardia
    • Severe pulmonary disease
    • Hypoxia
    • COPD
    • CHF
    • Other severe lung diseases (pneumonia)Methylxanthine toxicity
  3. What are the etiologies of supraventricular tachycardia's
    • Congenital anomalies
    • Hypoxemia
    • Medications: digitalis toxicity, albuterol, cocaine
    • Atrial insult
    • Increased sympathetic tone (less likely)
  4. What are the etiologies atrial flutter
    • Pericardial disease
    • Insult to atria
    • Left/right atrial enlargement
    • Hypoxia
    • Valvular heart disease
    • Hyper/hypothyroidism
    • Myocardial infarction
  5. What are the etiologies of atrial fibrillation
    • Hyperthyroidism
    • Hypothyroidism
    • ASCVD
    • Atrial septal defect
    • ValvularĀ heart disease (especially mitral stenosis)
    • Hypertension
    • Cardiomyopathy
    • Left atrial enlargement
    • Alcohol
  6. What are the etiologies of right axis deviation
    • Right ventricular hypertrophy (most common)Extensive lateral and apical myocardial infarction
    • WPW
    • LPFB
    • Massive pulmonary embolism
    • Pulmonary hypertension
    • RBBB
  7. What are the etiologies of left axis deviation
    • LAFB
    • Inferior MI
    • WPW
    • COPD
    • Hypertension/LVH
    • LBBB
    • Mechanical shift (pregnancy, ascites, abdominal mass)
  8. What are the etiologies of extreme right axis deviation
    • Ventricular tachycardia
    • Hyperkalemia
  9. What are the etiologies of premature junctional contractions
    • Normal variant
    • Hypoxia
    • Ischemia or insult to AV node
    • Electrolyte disturbances
    • Heart failure
    • Inferior wall myocardial infarction
  10. What are the etiologies of a junctional escape rhythm
    • Insult to/failure of SA node
    • Increased vagal tone on SA node
    • Hypoxia
    • Digitalis therapy (toxicity)
  11. What are the etiologies of accelerated junctional rhythms
    • Enhanced automaticity to the AV node: result of
    • -Insult to AV junction
    • -Digitalis toxicity
    • -Acute myocardial infarction
  12. What are the etiologies of a first-degree AV block
    • Normal finding
    • Age-related (old)
    • Medications that slow conduction through the AV node
    • Rarely progresses to more serious block
  13. What are the etiologies of a second degree AV block type I (WENCKEBACK)
    • Medications
    • Inferior wall myocardial infarction (occlusion of the RCA)
  14. What are the etiologies of a second-degree AV block type II
    • Medications
    • Large MI/damage to the AV node (RCA most likely)
  15. What are the etiologies of a third-degree (complete) AV block
    • Damage to the AV node
    • Inferior MI (at nodal level)
    • Extensive MI (at infranodal level)
  16. What are the etiologies of a premature ventricular contraction
    • Most likely increased automaticity
    • Myocardial irritation
    • Drug use (amphetamines, cocaine, caffeine, nicotine, phenothiazines)
    • Electrolyte imbalance
    • Dilated heart
    • Metabolic acidosis
    • Ischemia or infarct (exceedingly common)MVP
  17. What are the etiologies of an idioventricular rhythm
    • Medications
    • Failure of the SA and AV node
    • Conduction blocks (AV or intraventricular conduction)
    • Myocardial infarction
    • Profound ischemia
    • Sick sinus syndrome
  18. What are the etiologies of an accelerated idioventricular rhythm
    • Failure of the SA and AV node
    • AV or intraventricular conduction block with need for higher cardiac output
    • Myocardial infarction

    ***** Most common rhythm presenting after reperfusion*****
  19. What are the etiologies of ventricular tachycardia
    • Myocardial infarction (previous damage to the myocardium)
    • Myocardial irritability (PVCs, enhanced automaticity)
    • Drugs
    • Electrolyte imbalance
  20. What are the etiologies of ventricular tachycardia (torsades)
    • Electrolyte imbalances
    • Psychotropic drugs
    • Antiarrhythmic drugs
    • Any medication that prolongs the QT interval
    • Hereditary or idiopathic prolongation of the QT
  21. What are the etiologies of ventricular fibrillation
    • Myocardial infarction
    • Myocardial ischemia
    • Acid-based disorders
    • Untreated VT
    • Electrical shock
    • Hypothermia
  22. What are the etiologies of asystole
    • Trauma
    • Drug overdose
    • Extensive myocardial infarction
    • Massive PE
    • Severe electrolyte or acid-base disorder
    • Severe hypoxia

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EKG etiologies
2013-07-07 23:12:30

ekg etiologies
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