Chapter 1 Cisp 300

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Chapter 1 Cisp 300
2013-07-07 22:40:26
Chapter Cisp programming

chapter 1 key terms
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  1. Input
    Describes the entry of data items into computer memory using hardware devices such as a keyboard or mouse.
  2. Data Items
    includes all the text, numbers,and other information processed by a computer
  3. Processing
    Data items may involve organizing them, checking them for accuracy, or performing mathematical operations on them.
  4. Central Processing Unit
    Is the hardware component that processes data.
  5. Output
    Describes the operation of retrieving information from the memory and sending it to a device, such as a monitor or printer, so people can view, interpret, and work with the results.
  6. Information
    Processed data.
  7. Syntax
    is the grammar of a programming language
  8. computer memory (RAM)
    is the temporary, internal computer storage within a computer
  9. Volatile
    describes storage whose contents are lost when power is lost
  10. Nonvolatile
    describes storage whose contents are retained when power is lost.
  11. Machine Language
    Is a computers on/off circuitry language
  12. Source Code
    is the statements a programmer writes in a programming language
  13. Object Code
    is translated machine language
  14. Compiler or Interpreter
    translates a high-level language into machine language and indicates if you have used the programmer language correctly.
  15. Binary Language
    is represented using series of 1s and 0s
  16. Scripting Languages
    Python, Perl, and PHP are used to write programs that are typed directly from a keyboard. Scripting languages are stored as text rather than as binary executable files.
  17. Logical error
    occurs when incorrect instructions are performed, or when instructions are performed in the wrong order.
  18. Logic
    You develop the logic of the computer program when you give instructions to the computer in a specific sequence, without omitting any instructions or adding extraneous instructions.
  19. variable
    a named memory location whose value can vary.
  20. Program development cycle
    Consists of the steps that occur during a program's lifetime.
  21. Algorithm
    is the sequence of steps necessary to solve any problem.
  22. IPO chart
    is a program development tool that delineates input, processing, and output tasks.
  23. TOE Chart
    is a program development tool that lists tasks, objects, and events.
  24. Debugging
    is the process of finding and correcting program errors.
  25. Conversion
    is the entire set of actions an organization must take to switch over to using a new program or set of programs
  26. Maintenance
    consists of all the improvements and corrections made to a program after it is in production
  27. Pseudocode
    is an English like representation of the logical steps it takes to solve a problem
  28. Flowchart
    is a pictorial representation of the logical steps it takes to solve a problem.
  29. Input symbol/Output symbol
    indicates an input operation and is represented by a parallelogram in flowcharts
  30. Processing symbol
    indicates a processing operation and is represented by a rectangle in flowcharts
  31. Terminal symbol
    indicates an beginning or end of a flowcharts segments and is represented by a lozenge.
  32. Loop
    is a repetition of a series of steps.
  33. Infinite loop
    Occurs when repeating logic cannot end
  34. making a decision
    is the act of testing a value.
  35. Decision symbol
    is shaped like a diamond and used to represent decisions in flowcharts
  36. Dummy value/Sentinel value
    is a preselected value that stops execution of a program
  37. eof
    means end of file
  38. Command line
    is a location on your computer screen at which you type text entries to communicate with the computers operating system.
  39. Procedural programming
    is a programming model that focuses on the procedures that programmers create.
  40. Object-Oriented programming
    is a programming model that focuses on objects, or "things", and describes their features (also called attributes) and behaviors