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There are three crime laboratories within the Division of Law Enforcement Services, Wisconsin Department of Justice:
Madison, Milwaukee and wausau
The first Wisconsin State Crime Laboratory, located in Madison, was created by the Legislature in -------. A second laboratory was opened in the Milwaukee area in 1975. In 1991, the Wausau facility opened. These laboratories provide technical assistance in criminal matters when requested by authorized parties.
Scientific analysis of physical evidence is conducted at the Laboratories1by specialized units grouped into three sections
DNA, Chemistry, and criminalistics
Governmental Officials Authorizedto Request Laboratory Assistance
- Chief of Police
- Attorney General
- Medical Examiner
- District Attorney
- Head of any State Agency
- and any felony defendant with approval from judge
in any criminal investigation, the validity of information derived from examination of the physical evidence depends entirely upon the care with which the evidence has been protected from --------
: Items for------ examination should always be packaged in paper or cardboard, even if they appear dry.)
e. Small--------- are useful for samples such as bullets and bullet fragments
The ------------ file format is the preferred file format for digital photographs of latent prints, blood spatter, and footwear and tire track impressions that are submitted to the Laboratory for comparison purposes.
All digital photography files must be submitted to the Laboratory in the same manner as physical evidence and copied onto physical digital media such as a ---------
CD or DVD
--------- place a ruler inside a footwear or tire track impression.
Depending on the depth of the impression and the surface of the material it is in/on, the light should be placed at a low angle to the impression, from-------- to -------degrees
10 – 45
For digital cameras with a resolution of 8 to 16 megapixels, each of these overlapping photographs should cover approx. 10 to 12 inches of the tire track impression with a ½ to 1 inch overlap. For film and digital cameras with a resolution over 16 megapixels, each of these overlapping photographs should cover approx. 18 to 22 inches . For long sections of tire track impressions, overlapping photographs of a -------foot section of the impression will usually record the entire circumference of the average passenger car, minivan or light truck tire.
It is not recommended that ---------be used for the exclusive recording of the crime scene or autopsy.
What are the 4 types of crime scene sketches
- exploded view or cross projection
- perspective sketch
Triangulation – measurements are taken from
two fixed points at the scene to the object you desire to locate.
The following should be recorded on the crime scene sketch
- A. Address or location of scene.
- B. Case number.
- C. Date sketch was made and by whom.
- D. A key to identify the different objects in the sketch.
- E. An arrow to show the direction of north.
- F. Scale used for the sketch or the statement “Not to Scale”.
DNA, which stands for ------------------, is the genetic material (or “blueprint”) that determines the characteristics of all living organisms
The DNA of a person does not change over the course of his/her life so that person’s DNA profile always remains the same. (The only exception would be a
bone marrow transplant recipient.
There are three types of forensically interesting DNA
nuclear, Y chromosome and mitochondria
The type of nuclear and Y DNA testing currently in use in the State Crime Laboratories in Wisconsin is called --------------------------
Short Tandem Repeat analysis (STRs).
Elimination samples are important in all types of DNA cases, especially with the dramatic increase in submission of touched items. In many cases, elimination samples are now REQUIRED for CODIS upload purposes. These samples are needed for the following individuals:
- A. Prior consensual partners in sexual assault cases (contact of up to 96 hours prior to assault).
- B. Owners of vehicles/homes/businesses and individuals with legitimate access to swabbed items (i.e., the regular driver of a stolen car or owner of a burgled home).
When bloodstains are found at a crime scene, the following information should be documented:
- A. Physical state (fluid, moist, dry)
- B. Amount present (few drops, small pool)
- C. Shape (smear, round drops)
- D. Exact location in relation to fixed objects
- E. Pattern of stains (all in one spot, trail)
- F. Atmospheric conditions (temperature, humidity)
- G. Date and time of observations
- H. Scaled and unscaled photographs of stains
in sexual assault cases evidence from the victim and suspect can be collected up to ---hours after the assault.
A distinctly registered bite has the potential of linking the assailant and the victim when properly documented and analyzed by a qualified forensic -----------.
Tires should be submitted on the vehicle that they are mounted on if the vehicle is drivable. Arrangements should be made to find a similar vehicle if it is not.
t or f
Within the Wisconsin State Crime Laboratory System, the comparison of a questioned footwear or tire impression to a known standard will result in one of the following opinions:
- A. Not Suitable for Comparison
- B. Could Have Made
- C. Identification
- D. Elimination
One complete adult footwear impression can typically be cast using 1.5 to 2 pounds of dental stone material. One segment of a tire impression may typically require----to------- pounds of dental stone depending on the width of the impression and the length of the segment to be cast
3 to 4
Dental stone typically requires----to---- ounces of water per pound of powder to make a mixture the consistency of thick paint. While these are the recommended amounts, the actual amount of water needed can vary widely. Dental stone should flow freely when poured but should not be watery or runny.
When mixing dental stone in a premeasured bag, it may be beneficial to add----- of the water initially to start the mix
Friction ridge impressions can be categorized as follows:
- A. Latent prints – invisible or hidden
- B. Patent prints – visible prints
- C. Plastic prints – 3-dimensional impressions
The effectiveness of the superglue process is dependant on many variables. Among these are
- A. Room temperature.
- B. Humidity.
- C. Whether the superglue chamber is airtight.
- D. Length of time the items are fumed.
Major case prints should be taken of all felony suspects and victims of
Benefits of the Powder and Tape Method when taking major case prints
- A. Less time to complete than inked major case prints.
- B. Little or no cleanup.
- C. Powder covers ridge detail more evenly.
- D. No rolling of fingers or palms to cause smearing.
- E. Gives greater detail in one recording
Drawbacks of the Ink Method when taking major case prints
- A. Hard to apply an even coating of ink to all areas of hands and fingers – uneven results.
- B. Rolling of hand often introduces slippage – duplicate cards must be taken until documented properly.
- C. Requires equipment not always handy to the scene technician.
- D. Uncooperative persons can affect outcome by movement.
- E. Can take upwards of 45 minutes to an hour to complete.
e. A good fingerprint image is an image that provides sufficient data to accurately identify and locate the principle features. In AFIS, these features include ------------------
minutiae, cores, deltas and ridges
Recovered glass samples may be separated into several groups: two of the main groups are window/windshield glass and---------- glass.
. It should be noted that tempered float glass, the kind used in vehicles, business windows and doors, and residential shower doors cannot be fracture matched as they expand upon breaking.
true or false
A close examination of a tool mark may reveal the type of-------, contour of the cutting or prying edge, prying edge width or the presence of trace material
Recover and inventory all suspect tools observing the following precautions and submit them to the Laboratory for examination and comparison with tool marks.
- A. Never place a suspect tool in contact with a questioned tool mark or cast.
- B. Inscribe identification marks on tools for later identification. Exercise extreme care in handling and marking tool(s) if it is to be checked for fingerprints, DNA and/or trace evidence.
- C. Package each tool individually to prevent cross-contamination.
Trace metal and glass fragments can often be recovered from the soles of shoes if the suspect walks through such evidence during commission of the --------.
Plastic bags are----- suitable at any time for packaging shoes and leather objects. A new, clean paper bag should be used for each shoe and leather object.
Head hair standards Obtain at least ---------- head hairs by cutting them at the skin surface. These hairs should be collected from various areas of the head such as the crown, sides, front and back to assure that all shades of color and texture have been adequately sampled.
It is of the utmost importance that-----pieces of the broken item(s) at the scene be collected and preserved for later comparison with similar evidence collected from the suspect, victim, vehicle, home or other scenes;
The Laboratory accepts cases involving automobile accidents which have resulted in injury or death and where------------ is suspected
The perpetrators of criminal damage to motor vehicles may add a foreign substance, such as emery dust or sand, to the vehicle engine or transmission. Where internal damage of this type is suspected, a sample, consisting of one ------- of oil from the top and bottom of the oil pan of the damaged engine, should be submitted.
In cases involving addition of sugar or other materials to gasoline, submit at least one----- of gasoline from the tank
An autopsy is required in all violent or unattended deaths to determine the cause and possible manner of death. An unattended death is one for which there is no -------------------------------------
preexisting illness, medical condition, or reasonable explanation.
It is also appropriate to place the dental records of people who have been missing for a period of time (----to---- days) into the NCIC Missing Person database.
A dental examination should be conducted if there are:
- (1) No reports of a missing person or clues to the identity.
- (2) No personal effects are found.
- (3) No fingerprints are on file.
-------and------- are the most commonly analyzed specimens in toxicology. More information regarding drug and alcohol levels can be found about these two specimens than any others. Toxicology results from these specimens provide the strongest basis for the interpretation of effects and exposure.
Blood and urine
Even when an accurate blood level of a drug is obtained, the interpretation of its effects – the impairment and toxicity of the drug on a particular individual should be done with caution. Factors involved in such interpretations are
- A. Tolerance levels
- B. Multiple drug interactions
- C. Biological variation
- D. Postmortem redistribution
,-------- samples are a better choice than blood samples for investigations seeking to answer the question of drug use or exposure.
As a general rule, most laboratories will not detect drugs in blood if the blood is collected more than----- hours after the last ingestion/exposure.
If toxic symptoms are closely associated with the ingestion of food or drink, collect a reasonable portion--------of these items.
The State Crime Laboratory in Milwaukee supplies pseudo-cocaine and pseudo-heroin used in narcotic canine training. The pseudo drugs are available in pound and half-a-pound sizes only. Agencies interested in obtaining pseudo drugs need to request in writing on official letterhead the following:
- A. The type and quantity of the pseudo drug needed.
- B. The date by which the material is needed. (If possible, no less than ten working days).
- C. The name and phone number of the contact person and the billing address of the agency making the request.
- D. The shipping address, if the items are to be sent via FedEx or UPS.
When it is anticipated that latent print examination or DNA testing will be needed on drug packaging materials, the drug item should be ----------- from the original packaging when it is reasonable to do so.
in regards to the drug testing crime lab Liquids can be left in their original glass containers if the container is leak proof. Liquids in metallic containers should be transferred to a glass container. If a large quantity of liquid is encountered, submit only a representative sample (approximately ------milliliters) for analysis
Any law enforcement agency that believes there is a possible clandestine drug laboratory in their vicinity should first contact their regional------------------------------- for assistance in the investigation.
Division of Criminal Investigation (DCI) office
Containers of arson evidence need to be airtight to prevent loss by evaporation and possible contamination. Moisture is not a problem. Do not ----- -----arson evidence.
New, clean, unlined paint cans make ideal containers for preserving evidence suspected of containing ------------. Cans are available from paint stores or wholesalers
The Wisconsin State Crime Laboratory DOES NOT accept fireworks as evidence or for ----------.
Calligraphy and determining personality from handwriting are---------------- of forensic document examination.
The final results in an examination of documents are determined by the---------and-------- of material available to the forensic document examiner for comparison
quality and quantity
Procedures for Taking Requested Exemplars:
- A. Do not permit subject to see questioned document while exemplars are being written.
- B. Do not leave the subject.
- C. Have subject seated in a natural position at a table or desk.
- D. Furnish subject with paper similar to that used in the questioned documents. Always provide subject with a separate sheet for each specimen; requested exemplars should not be written one beneath the other on a single sheet.
- E. Duplicate the writing instrument.
- F. Dictate material to be written at a comfortable rate of speed for the subject; give no assistance with spelling or arrangement on the page.
- G. Have subject initial each page as completed.Questioned Documents
- H. Remove each page from view immediately upon completion by subject; number in sequence; add date and time and identify by placing your initials on each specimen. Investigator’s notations should be placed inconspicuously in an area removed from subject’s handwriting.
- I. Dictate at a fairly rapid rate of speed one or two paragraphs of material unrelated to the investigation.
- J. Record age and physical condition of subject that could influence the handwriting at the time.
- K. Record the handedness of the subject and collect one or more samples written with the off hand.
- L. Have subject sign any statement that she/he makes.
- M. When in doubt call the Laboratory before taking any requested exemplars. Improperly or inadequately requested exemplars may preclude a definite opinion
during forgery investigations In addition to the handwriting exemplar booklet, submit -------requested specimens of the signature in question written by suspects