Chapter 2 Cisp 300

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RobbBrown88
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226327
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Chapter 2 Cisp 300
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2013-07-09 11:50:10
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Chapter Cisp 300
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Chapter 2 Cisp 300
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  1. Numeric
    describes data that consists of numbers.
  2. String
    describes data that is non-numeric
  3. integer
    is a whole number
  4. floating-point number
    is a number with decimal places
  5. Real numbers
    are floating-point numbers
  6. numeric constant (literal numeric constant)
    a specific numeric value
  7. string constant (literal string constant)
    a specific group of characters enclosed within quotation marks
  8. Alphanumeric values
    can contain alphabetic characters, numbers, and punctuation.
  9. unnamed constant
    a literal numeric or string value
  10. Declaration
    a statement that provides a data type and an identifier for a variable
  11. identifier
    is a program component's name
  12. A data items DATA TYPE
    is a classification that describes what values can be assigned, how the item is stored, and what types of operations can be performed with them
  13. Garbage
    describes the unknown value stored in an unassigned variable.
  14. Keywords
    comprise the limited word set that is reserved in programming languages.
  15. Camel casing
    is a variable-naming convention in which the initial letter is lowercase, multiple-word variable names are run together, and each new word within the variable name is capitalized
  16. Pascal casing
    • is a variable-naming convention in which the initial letter is uppercase, multiple-word
    • variable names are run together, and each new
    • word within the variable name is capitalized
  17. Hungarian notation
    is a variable-naming convention in which a variable's data type or other information is stored as part of its name.
  18. assignment operator
    is the equal sign; it is used to assign a value to the variable or constant on its left
  19. assignment operator
    assigns a value from the right of an assignment operator to the variable or constant on the left side of the assignment operator
  20. binary operator
    is an operator that requires two operands- one and each side
  21. Right-associativity (right-to-left associativity)
    Describes operators that evaluate the expression to the right first.
  22. Ivalue
    is the memory address identifier to the left of an assignment operator
  23. Numeric variable
    is one that can hold digits, have mathematical operations performed on it, and usually hold a decimal point or a sign that indicates that it is positive or negative.
  24. String Variable
    can hold text that includes letters, digits, and special characters.
  25. Type-safety
    is the feature of programming languages that prevents assigning values of an incorrect data type
  26. named constant
    is similar to a variable, except that its value cannot change after the first assignment
  27. magic number
    is an unnamed constant whose purpose is not immediately apparent
  28. Overhead
    the additional resources a task requires.
  29. Left-to-right associativity
    describes operators that evaluate the expression to the left first.
  30. Modules
    are small program units that you can use together to make a program. Programmers also refer to modules as subroutines, procedures, functions, or methods
  31. Call a module
    is to use the module's name to invoke it, causing it to execute
  32. Modularization
    is the process of breaking down a program into modules.
  33. Functional decomposition
    is the act of reducing a large program into more manageable modules
  34. Abstraction
    is the process of paying attention to important properties while ignoring nonessential details.
  35. Reusability
    is the feature of modular programs that allows individual modules to be used in a variety of applications
  36. reliability
    is the feature of modular programs that assures you a module has been tested and proven to function correctly.
  37. Main Program
    runs from start to finish and calls other modules.
  38. mainline logic
    is the logic that appears in a program's main module; it calls other modules.
  39. Module header
    includes the module identifier and possibly other necessary identifying information
  40. Module body
    contains all the statements in a module
  41. Module return statement
    marks the end of the module and identifies the point at which control returns to the program or module that called the module.
  42. Encapsulation
    is the act of containing a task's instruction in a module
  43. A Stack
    is a memory location in which the computer keeps track of the correct memory address to which it should return after executing a module.
  44. The functional cohesion
    of a module is a measure of the degree to which all the module statements contribute to the same task.
  45. Visible
    describes the state of data items when a module can recognize them.
  46. In scope
    describes the state of data that is visible
  47. Local
    describes variables that are declared within the module that uses them
  48. Portable module
    is one that can be more easily used in multiple programs
  49. Global
    describes variables that are known to an entire program.
  50. Program level
    where global variables are declared.
  51. Housekeeping tasks
    include steps you must perform at the beginning of a program to get ready for the rest of the program.
  52. Detail loop tasks
    of a program include the steps that are repeated for each set of input data
  53. End-of-Job Tasks
    hold the steps you take at the end of the program to finish the application.
  54. hierarchy chart
    is a diagram that illustrates modules' relationships to each other.
  55. Program Comments
    Are written explanations that are not part of the program logic but serve as documentation for those reading the program
  56. An annotation symbol
    contains information that expands on what appears in another flowchart symbol; it is most often represented by a three-sided box that is connected to the step it references by a dashed line.
  57. Self-documenting programs
    are those that contain meaningful data and modules names that describe the programs' purpose.
  58. A Data Dictionary
    is a list of evert variable name used in a program, along with its type, size, and description.
  59. Temporary variable (work variable)
    is a working variable that you use to hold intermediate results during a programs execution.
  60. Prompt
    is a message that is displayed on a monitor to ask the user for a response and perhaps explain how that response should be formatted.
  61. Echoing input
    is the act of repeating input back to the user either in a subsequent prompt or in output

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