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L3. Define least restrictive environment.
The least restrictive environment is where students will learn with their non-disabled peers.
L3. Articulate the continuum of placement options and services.
A. Regular Education Classes/InclusionCollaboration/consultation/co-teaching services focus on special educators (Intervention Specialists) and general educators working together to best meet the needs of students with disabilities as well as children who may be "at risk". Each school operates Response to Intervention Teams to promote data driven instruction, to individualize learning experiences and to effectively integrate resources which would positively impact the child's educational program.
B. Individual/Small Group Setting (Tutoring)The Individual/Small Group Instruction program provides students with disabilities support that helps to increase their opportunity to benefit from regular class placement. This is supplemental instruction which focuses on targeted IEP goals and objectives. Depending upon each student’s individual needs, this instruction could include academic support , as well as assisting students in becoming independent in the "process" of learning through the use of compensatory strategies, and study/organizational techniques.
C. Resource Room The Resource Room serves children whose disabilities require intensive programming. Continued participation in the child's regular class activities is encouraged. The Resource Rooms offer an alternative/modified curriculum in a small group setting, which provides personalized options that are not offered in the general education program. These placements are considered cross-categorical, meaning students with a variety of disabilities are served in the same special class.
D. Separate Facility Separate facilities are, typically, schools outside of the district that are designed specifically for students with disabilities.
E. Home Instruction home instruction is an individualized education program provided at home to a child with a disability which prevents the child from attending a regular or special program even with the aid of special transportation.
F. Institutions and Hospitals.
L3. Review major federal legislation and court cases related to Intellectual Disabilities.
*Section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act (1973). This prohibits discrimination against persons with handicaps or mental or physical impairments that limit one or more of a person's major life activities.
*Education Amendments of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1974). This act requires all states to develop plans for implementing educational opportunities for all students with disabilities.
*Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act (1974). This broadened the term "developmental disabilities" and provided grants to states and university-affiliated programs.
*Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975). This mandated a free, appropriate education for all students with "handicaps" in the least restrictive environment, nondiscriminatory tests, IEP's, and procedural safeguards. This legislation is now known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).
*Handicapped Children's Protection Act (1986). This act allows courts to award reasonable attorney's fees to parents if the parents' complaint is successful.
*Americans with Disabilities Act (1990). This provides civil rights protections to all persons with disabilities and stresses equal opportunity, independent living, and economic self-sufficiency.
Wyatt V. Stickey- residential centers
- NY Assoc of Retarded Children V. Rockefeller
- O'Connor v. Donaldson- : overcrowding, understaffing, and alternatives to institutionalization.
Haldermn v. Penhurst: conditions in residential facilities
Youngberg v. Romeo: due process
- Cleburn Living Center v. City of Cleburne, TX:
Olmstead v. LC: individuals should be placed in community settings over institutions.
L3. Describe the 1997 amendments to IDEA (and be conscious of IDEA 2004 revisions as well) related to placement and parents' rights.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (IDEA), is the federal special education law.
- 1. Designates: FAPE
- 2. Appropriate evaluation
- 4. LRE
- 5. Parent participation
- 6. Procedural Safeguards
- IDEA 2004
- Reauthorized IDEA and brought it into alignment with NCLB.
1. Added new terms
- Added "Core Academic Subjects.
- "Limited English proficient"
- "Highly qualified"
- "Scientifically based research"
2. Allow for use of funds reserved to carry to out of state level activities.
3. Allow the use of funds in schoolwide programs.
4. Allow LEAs some flexibility in the use of funds to carry out activities under ESEA.
5. Add requirements for qualifications of special education teachers.
6. Require performance goals and indicators.
7. Require reporting.
8. Require development of alternate assessments.
9. Require linking records of migratory children among states.
10. Provide a special rule for eligibility determination.
L1. Define Intellectual Disabilities according to the American Association on Intellectual Disabilities (AAMR), American Psychological Association (APA), and Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) guidelines.
APA: In DSM-5, intellectual disability is considered to be approximately two standard deviations or more below the population, which equals an IQ score of about 70 or below.
IDEA: …means significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
AAMR/AAID: Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning (reasoning, learning, problem solving) and in adaptive behavior, which covers a range of everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18.
L1. Discuss prevalence factors.
SEX: More males are likely to be retarded. Such issues are often tied to the x chromosome.
Community Variables: more people from urban areas than rural areas are diagnosed; likely because of better diagnostic tools and higher demands of intellectual ability.
Sociopolitical factors: how we define ID fluctuates.
L1. Trace the historical developments in the field.
John Locke and John Rousseau: humanism (1700's)
Itard and Victor the jungle boy (1799)
Seguin: working on idocy (1800s)
Guggenbuhl: residential treatment to rehab (1800s)
Dix, Howe, & Wilbur: advocacy for better tx
Facilities-based orientation: 1890-1960
Community-based tx 1970's
L1. Identify current Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) and Arizona State Board of Education Professional Teaching Standards.
1. Maintaining challenging expectations
2. Maintain high levels of professionalism.
3. Promote meaningful and inclusive participation.
4. Practicing collegially with others.
5. Developing relationships with families.
6. Using evidence, instructional data, reserch, and professional knowledge to safe the date.
7. G. Protecting and supporting the physical and psychological safety of individuals with exceptionalities.
8. H. Neither engaging in nor tolerating any practice that harms individuals with exceptionalities.
9. I. Practicing within the professional ethics, standards, and policies of CEC; upholding laws, regulations, and policies that influence professional practice; and advocating improvements in laws, regulations, and policies.
10. J. Advocating for professional conditions and resources that will improve learning outcomes of individuals with exceptionalities.
11. Engaging in the improvement of the profession through active participation in professional organizations.
12. Participating in the growth and dissemination of professional knowledge and skills.
L2. What is adaptive behavior and how can it be assessed?
How effectively individuals cope with common life demands. It is assessed with the ABAS.
Benefit:Provides a complete assessment of adaptive skills across the life span
Ages Birth to 89 years
Administration Time:15 to 20 minutes
Format:Behavior rating scale typically completed by parent, caregiver, and/or teacher; self-rating option for adults
Scores:For the 10 Skill Areas---norm-referenced scaled scores and test-age equivalents.For the 3 Adaptive Domains and the General Adaptive Composite (GAC)--norm-referenced standard scores and age-based percentile ranks. In addition, all scores can be categorized descriptively.
L2. What are the major instruments used to assess adaptive behavior?
Behavior rating scale typically completed by parent, caregiver, and/or teacher; self-rating option for adults.
L2. How is intelligence defined?
he ability to apply knowledge to manipulate one's environment or to think abstractlyaas measured by objective criteria (as tests)
L2. What are the major theories of intelligence?
psychometric- underlying abilities account for most variations in intellectual functioning.
information-processing- focus on the methods by which a person processes information, taking it from sensory stimuli and transferring it to motoric output.
triarchic theory- describes complex and highly integrated system of mental operations that combines such influential elements as the internal world, the external world of of the individual and the individual's life experience.
multiple intelligences: people have their talents in areas other than reading, writing, and math: spacial,
L2. What are the major instruments used to measure intelligence?
L4. Identify the major biological causes of Intellectual Disabilities.
- Genetics is the study of heredity and its variations. The field of genetics has grown significantly in the recent past, specifically in the form of gene mapping through the Human Genome Project. Genetic transmission of traits occurs through three ways:
- Dominant transmission - Dominant inheritance determines a variety of common traits and several rare physical disorders.
- Recessive transmission - Recessive inheritance determines common physical traits, but also involves disorders capable of producing severe disabilities and serious health impairments.
- Sex-linked (or X linked) inheritance is derived from a variety of recessive traits carried on the X chromosome. Some examples of syndromes related to Intellectual Disabilities include Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome and Fragile X Syndrome.
- Chromosomal Deviations
- Another major source of biological causes of disabilities is chromosomal anomalies.
- Down Syndrome is the most prevalent and best known cause of Intellectual Disabilities.
- Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is an autosomal abnormality that is associated with mild Intellectual Disabilities and learning disabilities.
- Congenital factors, including cranial malformations, are associated with harmful factors called teratogens.
congenital syphilis, blood-group incompatibility
) and substance exposure
(fetal alcohol effects, drugs).
Prematurity and Perinatal
Concerns Prematurity has been linked to lower IQ, cerebral palsy, attentional deficits, and other neurological and medical complications.
- Postnatal Biological Concerns
- During the early childhood years, postnatal traumatic events of trauma and neglect can lead to Intellectual Disabilities. Head injuries, child abuse, and lead poisoning are included in this area.
L4. Describe strategies to prevent Intellectual Disabilities and interventions to improve psychosocial functioning.
Infant/toddler interventions to provide stimulation and parent education to decrease the possibility of children developing intellectual disabilities.
Preschool or Head Start programs are designed to mitigate the effects of poverty which can impact developing intellectual disabilities.
L4. Articulate the relationship between Intellectual Disabilities and behavioral, psychological, and other types of developmental disorders.
A student with an intellectual disability may be slower on processing information, particularly as it pertains to acceptable behavior. A student who does not process information may not fully understand that their behavior is negative or why the behavior is negative. Children with intellectual disabilities are more likely to develop conduct disorders. Students with low adaptive abilities will struggle and may not be able to adapt to behavioral expectations.
L5. Describe the general characteristics of individuals with milder forms of Intellectual Disabilities.
External locus of control -- Many students with Intellectual Disabilities see events as being primarily controlled by outside forces such as fate, chance or other people.
Expectancy of failure - Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities often expect to fail due to their past experiences with being unsuccessful in endeavors.
Outer-directedness - Instead of being self-reliant in problem solving, the outer-directed individual relies on situational or external cues for guidance.
L5. Identify the demographic descriptors that describe this group.
Demographic CharacteristicsStudents with mild Intellectual Disabilities can be characterized by:
Gender - more boys than girls. According to the textbook Intellectual Disabilities, reasons for more males being identified include greater role expectations placed on males, aggressive behavior more often exhibited by males, and a higher probability of such biological factors as gender-linked influence affecting male children. The US Department of Education indicates that there is the possibility that gender bias might exist in the diagnostic/classification process as well.
Ethnicity - disproportionate number of racial and ethnic minority children. Studies of the overrepresentation of African American students in special education, even when the impact of poverty is accounted for, indicate that there is a disproportionate number of African American students in programs for students with Intellectual Disabilities.
Socioeconomic and Family patterns - Those diagnosed with MMR, mild Intellectual Disabilities, are more likely to live in single-parent families and come from a lower socioeconomic status.
L5. Describe those characteristics that affect performance in school and community.
studies show that sociobehavioral problems include: