The branch of psychology that studies the patterns of growth and change that occur throughout life.
The issue of the degree to which environment and heredity influence behavior.
Twins who are genetically identical.
A research method that compares people of different ages at the same point in time.
A research method that investigates behavior as participants age.
A research method that combines cross-sectional and longitudinal research by considering a number of different age groups and examining them at several points in time.
Rod-shaped structures that contain all basic hereditary information.
The parts of the chromosomes through which genetic information is transmitted.
The new cell formed by the union of an egg and sperm.
A developed zygote that has a heart, a brain, and other organs.
A developing individual from eight weeks after conception until birth.
Age of Viability
The point at which a fetus can survive if born prematurely.
Environmental agents such as a drug, chemical, virus, or other factor that produce a birth defect.
A newborn child.
Unlearned, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli.
The decrease in the response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus.
The positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual.
Parents who are rigid and punitive and value unquestioning obedience from their children.
Parents who give their children relaxed or inconsistent direction and, although they are warm, require little of them.
Parents who are firm, set clear limits, reason with their children, and explain things to them.
Parents who show little interest in their children and are emotionally detached.
Basic, innate disposition.
Development of individuals' interactions and understanding of each other and of their knowledge and understanding of themselves as members of society.
According to Erikson, the first stage of psychosocial development, occurring from birth to age 1.5 years, during which time infants develop feelings of trust or lack of trust.
The period during which, according to Erikson, toddlers (age 1.5-3 years) develop independence and autonomy if exploration and freedom are encouraged or shame and self-doubt if they are restricted and overprotected.
According to Erikson, the period during which children ages 3-6 years experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negative results of that action.
According to Erikson, the last stage of childhood, during which children age 6-12 years may develop positive social interactions with others or may feel inadequate and become less sociable.
The process by which a child's understanding of the world changes as a function of age and experience.