Ch 13 Nervous Tissue.txt

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issacgoboom
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226339
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Ch 13 Nervous Tissue.txt
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2013-07-08 18:34:13
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ayaz learns anatomy
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  1. Central Nervous System (CNS) (structure)
    brain, spinal cord
  2. Nervous System
    • Sensation (collects information, recognizes changes)
    • Motor (sends information, controls responses)
    • Integration (connects sensory to motor);Memory
  3. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) (structure)
    spinal nerves, cranial nerves
  4. Sensory (direction)
    afferent, toward CNS, detects changes
  5. Motor (direction)
    efferent, from CNS, controls response
  6. Somatic (connection)
    skin, muscles
  7. Visceral (connection)
    organs
  8. Functional divisions of the nervous system
    a) somatic sensory b) somatic motor c) visceral sensory b) visceral motor (to cadiac and smooth muscle, glands; Autonomic system)
  9. stimulus
    change in conditions, excites the neuron
  10. impulse
    wave of excitation along the neuron
  11. Neuron
    conduct impulse
  12. neuroglia
    supportive cells, don't conduct impulse
  13. Soma
    cell body (nucleus + organelles)
  14. Receptors
    part of the receptive area, get stimulated; specialized for different sensations
  15. dendrite
    part of the receptive area, impulse toward cell body
  16. axon
    transmits impulse to axon terminal
  17. axon hillock
    1st part of axon; "threshold"
  18. axon terminal
    secretes neurotransmitter
  19. direction of the impulse
    dendrite>axon>axon terminal
  20. Neurons are Amitotic
    aight
  21. Myelin
    lipid covering axons, increases speed of impulse, insulates neurons
  22. Node of Ranvier
    myelin sheath gaps
  23. Schwann cells
    produce myelin in PNS
  24. neurilemma
    outer layer of Schwann cells
  25. Oligodendrocytes
    produce myelin in CNS
  26. Gray matter
    CNS tissue, neuron cell bodies, unmyelinated interneurons, synapses
  27. White matter
    part of the CNS tissue, myelinated axons, brain and spinal cord
  28. Synapse
    Space between neurons and effector cells
  29. pre-synaptic neuron
    axon terminal (end of axon), releases neurotransmitter
  30. post-synaptic neuron
    dendrite, cell body, or axon
  31. neurotransmitter
    chemical released by pre-synaptic axon terminal, stimulates post-synaptic neuron (or muscle)
  32. multipolar neuron structure
    multiple dendrites + 1 axon, all motor neurons; interneurons
  33. bipolar neuron structure
    1 dendrite + 1 axon, sensory - eye, smell, hearing
  34. unipolar neuron structure
    1 process - long axon, most sensory neurons, peripheral process, central process
  35. Astrocytes
    neuroglia (support cells of CNS), maintains synapse; aids blood-brain barrier
  36. microglia
    neugrolia (CNS support cell); phagocyte (defense)
  37. ependymal cells
    neugrolia (CNS support cell); produce cerebrospinal fluid
  38. oligodendrocytes
    neugrolia (CNS support cell); produce myelin sheaths
  39. Schwann cells
    (PNS) support axons; produce myelin
  40. satellite cells
    PNS; support cell bodies
  41. Neuron
    single cell
  42. nerve fiber
    1 axon
  43. Nerve
    bundle of axons in PNS, most nerves are mixed - sensory + motor
  44. Tract
    bundle of axons in CNS; not mixed, either sensory or motor
  45. ganglion
    cluster of cell bodies in PNS
  46. Nucleus
    cluster of cell bodies in CNS
  47. Endoneurium
    areolar ct around each axon
  48. perineurium
    ct around each fascicle
  49. epineurium
    fibrous ct around entire nerve
  50. Integration
    sensory neuron meets motor neuron; usually in CNS
  51. 2 neuron connection
    usually in CNS; sensory + synapse + motor
  52. 3 neuron connection
    usually in CNS; sensory + interneuron + motor
  53. network connection
    sensory + many interneurons + motor
  54. Reflex
    automatic response to stimulus
  55. Involuntary
    w/o conscious control
  56. somatic reflexes
    skeletal muscle response, hot stove, tendon reflexes, scared
  57. visceral reflexes
    organ response, glands, cardiac or smooth muscles, heart rate, blood pressure, pupil constriction
  58. reflex arc
    direct connection of sensory to motor; 5 parts (receptor, sensory neuron, integration center, motor neuron, effector)
  59. receptor of the reflex arc
    gets stimulated (skin, muscle, organ); part of the reflex arc
  60. sensory neuron of the reflex arc
    afferent to CNS
  61. integration center
    synapse, interneurons in CNS; part of the reflex arc
  62. motor neuron
    efferent to effector; part of the reflex arc
  63. effector
    muscle or gland; part of the reflex arc
  64. CNS
    Connection between sensory and motor (integration center); (synapse, 1 or many interneurons); controls the appropriate response to stimulus

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