Chapter 16 CNS - Brain

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issacgoboom
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Chapter 16 CNS - Brain
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2013-07-10 02:54:42
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ayaz learns anatomy
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  1. General areas of the brain
    7 parts: cerebrum, thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, cerebellum, medulla oblongata
  2. brain stem parts
    midbrain + pons + medulla oblongata
  3. Telencephalon
    cerebrum, developmental area of the brain
  4. diencephalon
    thalamus + hypothalamus, developmental area of the brain
  5. mesencephalon
    midbrain, developmental area of the brain
  6. metencephalon
    pons + cerebellum, developmental area of the brain
  7. myelencephalon
    medulla oblongata, developmental area of the brain
  8. Gray matter
    cell bodies and interneurons; outer & inner gray matter; part of cerebrum
  9. Cererbral cortex
    organ of perception and consciousness, part of outer gray matter
  10. White Matter
    Myelinated axons
  11. gyrus
    bumps
  12. sulcus
    grooves
  13. longitudinal fissure
    a deep sulcus separating hemispheres
  14. transverse cerebral fissure
    separates cerebrum from cerebellum
  15. dorsal
    CNS; sensory
  16. ventral
    CNS; motor
  17. Lobes of cerebrum
    5 lobes, Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, insula (internal at lateral sulcus)
  18. Primary motor cortex
    precentral gyrus, contains pyramidal cells
  19. Primary visual cortex
    occipital lobe
  20. primary auditory cortex
    temporal lobe
  21. Frontal eye field
    cortex functional area
  22. prefrontal cortex
    learning, problem solving, behaviors
  23. insula
    internal at lateral sulcus
  24. Broca's area
    motor for speech
  25. Wernicke's Area
    understanding speech
  26. Corpus callosum
    connects R&L hemispheres; white matter
  27. internal capsule
    between thalamus & basal ganglia; white matter
  28. Corona radiata
    from thalamus up to cortex; white matter
  29. Internal cerebral gray matter
    Basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala
  30. Basal ganglia
    a.k.a basal nuclei; 3 parts: globus pallidus, putamen, caudate nucleus.
  31. Lentiform nuclei
    globus pallidus + putamen; starts and stops movements, requires Dopamine
  32. Hippocampus
    short term memory, facts, events, Alzheimer's disease, part of the medial temporal lobe
  33. amygdala
    recognizes danger, fear, aggressive behaviors
  34. Thalamus
    sensory relay (sensory info to cortex), sensory filter(weak, unimportant stimuli)
  35. Lateral geniculate nucleus
    vision, part of the thalamus
  36. medial geniculate nucleus
    auditory, part of the thalamus
  37. Hypothalamus
    visceral control center, regulates organ functions; 6 functions (temperature control, hunger, water levels, autonomic ns., endocrine, emotions)
  38. Pineal gland
    parts of epithalamus, secretes melatonin (sleep cycles), controlled by hypothalamus
  39. Brain stem
    3 parts: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata; visceral reflexes, passageway between cortex and spinal cord, contains cranial nerves
  40. Choroid Plexus
    5 parts: lateral ventricles, third ventricle, fourth ventricle, cerebral aqueduct (between 3rd & 4th); contains ependymal cells, makes CSF
  41. CSF
    Cerebral Spinal Fluid, made in choroid plexus, by ependymal cells
  42. Superior COlliculi
    Visual reflexes, part of CORPORA QUADRIGEMINA in the midbrain
  43. Inferior Colliculi
    auditory reflexes, part of CORPORA QUADRIGEMINA in the midbrain
  44. cerebral peduncles
    pyramidal motor tracts in the midbrain
  45. substantia nigra
    produces dopamine
  46. red nucleus
    flexion movements; muscle tone
  47. pons
    bridge to cerebellum, contains respiratory centers
  48. medulla oblongata
    7 parts: cardiac center, vasomotor center (blood pressure), respiratory center, vestibular nuclei, cochlear nuclei, solitary nucleus (taste), pyramids
  49. reticular formation
    maintains input from all senses, motor to most muscles
  50. RAS
    reticular activating system, projects to cerebrum, maintains consciousness and alertness
  51. Cerebellum
    coordination to voluntary movements, 40% of brain neurons
  52. Vermis
    connects hemispheres in cerebellum
  53. arbor vitae
    inner white matter of cerebellum
  54. purkinje cells
    large branched cells in the cerebellum
  55. superior cerebellar peduncle
    connects midbrain to cerebrum
  56. middle cerebellar peduncle
    pons to cerebrum
  57. inferior cerebellar peduncle
    medulla to the body
  58. limbic system parts
    6 parts: amygdala, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, pre-frontal cortex, hypothalamus, fornix
  59. amygdala
    danger, fear, aggression; part of the limbic system
  60. cingulate gyrus
    recognize gestures, face expressions, part of the limbic system
  61. hippocampus
    short term memory; part of the limbic system
  62. pre-frontal cortex
    behavior, memory, problem solving; part of the limbic system
  63. hypothalamus
    visceral responses; part of the limbic system
  64. fornix
    connects 2 sides of the limbic system
  65. Meninges
    cover and protect CNS
  66. Pia matter
    inner surface of brain, meninges
  67. Arachnoid
    between pia matter and dura matter
  68. Subarachnoid space
    contains CSF
  69. Arachnoid villi
    projects into dural sinuses
  70. Dura matter
    outer meninges
  71. Periosteal layer of dura matter
    lines skull
  72. meningeal layer of dura matter
    next to arachnoid
  73. dural sinuses
    drain excess CSF
  74. septum pellucidum
    median membrane
  75. central canal
    continues in spinal cord
  76. apertures
    connect ventricles to subarachnoid space

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