Chapter 4

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abuter
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226379
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Chapter 4
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2013-08-26 21:13:17
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Skeletal System
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  1. the process of moving a body part away from the middle
    abduction

  2. the process of moving a body part toward the middle
    adduction


  3. the process of moving a body part in a circular motion
    circumduction


  4. the process of bending a body part backward
    dorsiflexion

  5. the process of turning outward
    eversion

  6. the process of straightening a flexed limb
    extension


  7. the process of bending a limb
    flexion


  8. the process of turning inward
    inversion

  9. the process of lying prone or face downward; also the process of turning the hand so the palm faces downward
    pronation

  10. the process of moving a body part forward
    protraction

  11. the process of moving a body part backward
    retraction

  12. the process of moving a body part around a central axis
    rotation
  13. the process of lying supine or face upward; also the process of turning the palm or foot upward
    supination

  14. a
    without
  15. dis
    apart
  16. hydr
    water
  17. meta
    beyond
  18. peri
    around
  19. poly
    • many
    • much
  20. re
    back
  21. sub
    • under
    • beneath
  22. sym
    together
  23. tract
    to draw
  24. acetubul
    vinegar cup
  25. arthr
    joint
  26. acro
    • extremity
    • point
  27. humer
    humerus
  28. ili
    lilium
  29. sacr
    sacrum
  30. ankyl
    • stiffening
    • crooked
  31. burs
    a pouch
  32. inter
    between
  33. carp
    wrist
  34. cartil
    gristle
  35. kyph
    a hump
  36. chondr
    cartilage
  37. lamin
    lamina (thin plate)
  38. cost
    rib
  39. lord
    bending
  40. connect
    to bind together
  41. lump
    loin
  42. clavicul
    little key
  43. mandibul
    lower jawbone
  44. stern
    sternum
  45. maxill
    jawbone
  46. menisc
    cresent
  47. dactyl
    • finger
    • toe
  48. femor
    femur
  49. myel
    marrow
  50. fibul
    fibula
  51. olecran
    elbow
  52. por
    a passage
  53. carcin
    cancer
  54. sarc
    flesh
  55. chondr
    cartilage
  56. patell
    kneecap
  57. rheumat
    discharge
  58. ped
    foot
  59. scapul
    shoulder blade
  60. phos
    light
  61. scoli
    curvature
  62. phor
    carrying
  63. spin
    spine
  64. duct
    to lead
  65. spondyl
    vertebra
  66. tenon
    tendon
  67. tibi
    tibia
  68. uln
    elbow
  69. vertebr
    vertebra
  70. xiph
    sword
  71. chondr/o
    cartilage
  72. cran/i
    skull
  73. acr/o
    extremity
  74. cran/o
    skull
  75. arthr/o
    joint
  76. dactyl/o
    • finger
    • toe
  77. calcan/e
    heel bone
  78. ili/o
    ilium
  79. coccyg/e
    tailbone
  80. isch/i
    • ischium
    • hip
  81. coll/a
    glue
  82. lumb/o
    loin
  83. cost/o
    rib
  84. myel/o
    marrow
  85. oste/o
    bone
  86. phalang/e
    closely knit row
  87. rach/i
    spine
  88. rad/i
    radius
  89. radi/o
    ray
  90. stern/o
    sternum
  91. uln/o
    elbow
  92. verterbr/o
    vertebra
  93. -ar
    pert to
  94. -age
    related to
  95. -plasia
    formation
  96. -dynia
    pain
  97. -itis
    inflammation
  98. -gen
    • formation
    • produce
  99. -omion
    shoulder
  100. -ive
    nature of
  101. -osis
    cond of
  102. -ectomy
    excision
  103. -algia
    pain
  104. -tomy
    incision
  105. -centesis
    surgical puncture
  106. -ic
    pert to
  107. -scope
    insturment
  108. -gram
    • mark
    • record
  109. -al
    pert to
  110. -ion
    process
  111. -ac
    pert to
  112. -ary
    pert to
  113. -us
    pert to
  114. -oma
    tumor
  115. -poiesis
    formation
  116. -blast
    • immature cell
    • germ cell
  117. -malacia
    softening
  118. -penia
    lack of
  119. -tome
    instrument to cut
  120. -edema
    swelling
  121. -graph
    • to write
    • record
  122. -iod
    resemble
  123. -physis
    growth
  124. Abbr.

    ACL
    anterior cruciate ligament
  125. Abbr.

    AP
    anteroposterior
  126. Abbr.

    BMD
    bone mineral density (test)
  127. Abbr.

    CDH
    congenital dislocation of hip
  128. Abbr.

    Ca
    calcium
  129. Abbr.

    DJD
    degenerative joint disease
  130. Abbr.

    Fx
    fracture
  131. Abbr.

    JRA
    juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
  132. Abbr.

    jt
    joint
  133. Abbr.

    KJ
    knee jerk
  134. Abbr.

    LAC
    long arm cast
  135. Abbr.

    lig
    ligament
  136. Abbr.

    LLC
    long leg cast
  137. Abbr.

    LLCC
    long leg cylinder cast
  138. Abbr.

    OA
    osteoarthritis
  139. Abbr.

    ORTHO
    • orthopedics
    • orthopaedics
  140. Abbr.

    PCL
    posterior cruciate ligament
  141. Abbr.

    PEMFs
    pulsing electromagnetic fields
  142. Abbr.

    PWB
    partial weight bearing
  143. Abbr.

    RA
    rheumatoid arthritis
  144. Abbr.

    SAC
    short arm cast
  145. Abbr.

    SLC
    short leg cast
  146. Abbr.

    SPECT
    single photon emission computed tomography
  147. Abbr.

    TMJ
    temporomandibular joint
  148. Abbr.

    Tx
    traction
  149. fractures that do not involve a break in the skin; they are completley internal
    closed or simple fx
  150. fx is thru the skin increasing the possibility of infection or hemorrahge
    open or compound fx
  151. fx's shatter the affected part into a multitude of bony fragments
    comminuted fx
  152. fx's break the shaft of a bone across its longitudinal axis
    transverse fx
  153. fx's with only 1 side of the shaft broken and the other side bent; usually occurs in children whose long bones have not fully ossified
    greenstick fx
  154. fx produced by twisting stresses that are spread along the length of a bone
    spiral fx
  155. a break in the distal portion of the radius, often the result of reaching out to cushion a fall
    colles' fx
  156. fx that occurs at the ankle and affects the tib/fib
    pott's fx
  157. releives the swelling, tenderness, redness, and pain of imflammation
    anti-inflammatories
  158. steroid substance with potent anti-inflammatory effects
    corticosteroids  (glucocorticoids)
  159. agents that are used in the treatment of arthritis and related d/o's.
    Nonsteroidal   (NSAIDs)
  160. drugs that may influence the course of the disease progression
    disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (RMARDs)
  161. reduces the production of compounds associated with inflammation and pain
    COX-2 inhibitors
  162. drug that seems to slow, if not  halt, the destruction of the joints by disrupting the activity of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
    anti-TNF drugs
  163. TNF
    tumor necrosis factor
  164. colchicine
    agents to treat gout
  165. releive pain w/o causing loss of consciousness
    analgesics
  166. bone markings:

    rounded process that enters into the formation of a joint
    condyle
  167. bone markings:

    a ridge on a bone
    crest
  168. bone markings:

    a slit-like opening between two bones
    fissure
  169. bone markings:

    shallow depression in or on a bone
    fossa
  170. bone markings:

    the rounded end of a bone
    head
  171. bone markings:

    a tube-like passage or canal
    meatus
  172. bone markings:

    an enlargement or protrusion of a bone
    process
  173. bone markings:

    a pointed, sharp, slender process
    spine
  174. bone markings:

    a groove, furrow, depression, or fissure
    sulcus
  175. bone markings:

    a very large process of the femur
    trochanter
  176. bone markings:

    a small, rounded process
    tubercle
  177. bone markings:

    a large, rounded process
    tuberosity
  178. bone shape:

    ribs, scapula, parts of the pelvic girdle, bones of the skull
    flat
  179. bone shape:

    tibia, femur, humerus, radius
    long
  180. bone shape:

    carpal, tarsal
    short
  181. bone shape:

    vertebrae, ossicles of the ear
    irregular
  182. bone shape:

    petella
    sesamoid
  183. bone shape:

    between the flat bones of the skull
    sutural or wormian
  184. the ends of a developing bone
    epiphysis
  185. shaft of a long bone
    diaphysis
  186. membrane that forms the covering of bones except at their articular surfaces
    periosteum
  187. dense, hard layer of bone tissue
    compact bone
  188. a narrow space or cavity throughtout the length of the diaphysis
    medullary canal
  189. tough, connective tissue membrane lining the medullary canal and containing the bone marrow
    endosteum
  190. reticular tissue that makes up most of the volume of bone
    cancellous or spongy bone
  191. 6 functions of the bones
    • provide shape, support, and the framework of the body
    • provide protection for internal organs
    • serve as a storage place for minerals, Ca, & phosphorus
    • help in the formation of hemopoiesis in the bone marrow
    • provide areas for the attachment of skeletal muscles
    • help make movement possible through articulation
  192. hemopoiesis
    formation of blood cells
  193. a joint that does not permit movement; bones are in close contact with e/o & there is no joint cavity
    synathrosis

    ex. cranial sutures
  194. a joint that permits very slight movement
    amphiarthrosis joint

    ex: vertebrae
  195. joint that allows free movement in a varitey of direction
    diarthrosis

    ex: knee, hip, elbow, wrist, foot
  196. a place where two or more bones connect; an articulation
    joint
  197. play a role in joining bones together, providing areas for muscle attachments, and serving as a passageway for blood vessels, ligaments, and nerves
    bone markings
  198. cup-shaped socket of the hipbone into which the thighbone fits
    acetabular
  199. a defect in the formation of cartilage at the epiphyses of long bones
    achondraplasia
  200. inflammation of the joints of the hands or feet
    acroarthritits
  201. the projection of the spine of the scapula that forms the point of the shoulder and articulates with the clavicle
    acromion
  202. cond of stiffening of a joint
    ankylosis
  203. pain in a joint
    arthralgia
  204. inflammation of a joint
    arthritis
  205. surgical puncture of a joint for removal of fluid
    arthrocentesis
  206. surgical repair of a joint
    arthroplasty
  207. an instrument used to examine the interior of a joint
    arthroscope
  208. the sugical process of transferring bone marrow from a donor to a patient
    bone marrow transplant
  209. a sm. space between muscles, tendons, and bones that is lined with synovial membrane and contains a fluid (synovia)
    bursa
  210. inflammation of the bursa
    bursitis
  211. pert. to the heel bone
    calcaneal
  212. a mineral that is essential for bone growth, teeth development, blood coagulation, and many other functions
    calcium

    Ca
  213. cond caused by compression of the median nerve by the carpal ligament
    carpal tunnel syndrome
  214. specialized type of fibrous connective tissue present in adults which forms the major portion of the embryonic skeleton
    cartilage
  215. type of material used to immobilize a bone
    cast
  216. pert to cartilage
    chondral
  217. pert to rib cartilage
    chondrocostal
  218. pert to the clavicle
    clavicular
  219. pert to the coccyx
    coccygeal
  220. pain in the coccyx
    coccygodynia
  221. fibrous insoluble protein found in the connective tissue, skin, ligaments, and cartilage
    collagen
  222. connects or binds together
    connective
  223. pert to the rib
    costal
  224. pert to a rib and the sternum
    costosternal
  225. surgical excision of a portion of the skull
    craniectomy
  226. incision into the skull
    craniotomy
  227. pert to the finger or toe
    dactylic
  228. dactylogram
    fingerprint
  229. displacement of a bone from a joint
    dislocation
  230. pert to the femur; thigh bone
    femoral
  231. pert to the fibula
    fibular
  232. the process of holding or fastening in a fixed position; making rigid, immobilizing
    fixation
  233. an abnormal flatness of the sole and arch of the foot
    flatfoot
  234. genu valgum
    knock-knee
  235. genu varum
    bowleg
  236. hereditary metabolic disease that is a form of acute arthritis; usually begins in the knee or foot but can affect any joint
    gout
  237. the big or great toe
    hallux
  238. an acquired flexion deformity of the interphalangeal joint
    hammertoe
  239. pert to the humerus
    humeral
  240. cond of fluid in a joint
    hydrarthrosis
  241. pert to the ilium and the sacrum
    iliosacral
  242. pert to between the ribs
    intercostal
  243. pain to the ischium, hip
    ischialgia
  244. kyphosis
    humpback
  245. surgical excision of the verterbral posterior arch
    laminectomy
  246. a band of fibrous connective tissue that connects bones, cartilages, and other structures; also serves as a place for the attachment of the fascia or muscle
    ligament
  247. abnormal anterior curvature of the spine
    lordosis
  248. pert to the loins
    lumbar
  249. pain the loins
    lumbodynia
  250. pert to the lower jawbone
    mandibular
  251. pertaining to the upper jawbone
    maxillary
  252. cresent shaped interarticular fibrocartilage found in certain joints, especially the lateral and medial menisci (semilunar cartilages) of the knee
    meniscus
  253. pert to the bones of the hand
    metacarpal
  254. surgical excision of one or more bones of the hand
    metacarpectomy
  255. a tumor of the bone marrow
    myeloma
  256. the formation of bone marrow
    myelopoiesis
  257. pert to the elbow
    olecranal
  258. inflammation of the bone and joint
    osteoarthritis
  259. a bone-forming cell
    osteoblast
  260. cancerious tumor of a bone; new growth of epithelal tissue
    osteocarcinoma
  261. inflammation of the bone and cartilage
    osteochondritis
  262. formation of bone
    osteogenesis
  263. softening of the bones
    osteomalacia
  264. inflammation of the bone marrow
    • osteomyelitis
    • myelitis
  265. a lack of bone tissue
    osteopenia
  266. a cond that results in reduction of bone mass
    osteoporosis
  267. malignant tumor of the bone; cancer arising from connective tissue
    osteosarcoma
  268. instrument used for cutting bone
    osteotome
  269. pert to patella
    patellar
  270. pert to the foot
    pedal
  271. swelling around a bone
    periosteoedema
  272. pert to the bones of the fingers and the toes
    phalangeal
  273. mineral that is essential in the bone formation, muscle contraction, and many other functions
    phosphorus
  274. inflammation of more then one joint
    polyarthritis
  275. instrument used to measure the curvature of the spine
    rachigraph
  276. pert to the radius
    radial
  277. an x-ray photograph of a body part
    radiograph
  278. manipulative or surgical procedure used to correct a fx or hernia
    reduction
  279. chronic systemic disease characterized by inflammation of the joints, stiffness, pain, and swelling that results in crippling deformities
    rheumatoid arthritis 

    RA
  280. dificiency cond in children primarily caused by a lack of vitamin D;   may also result from inadequate intake or exessive loss of calcium
    rickets
  281. pert to the shoulder blade
    scapular
  282. per to the spine
    spinal
  283. appliance use for fixation, support, and rest of an injured body part
    splint
  284. inflammation of one or more vertebrae
    spondylitis
  285. twisting of a joint that causes pain and disability
    sprain
  286. a sharp or pointed projection, as on a bone
    spur
  287. pert to the sternum
    sternal
  288. surgical incision of the sternum
    sternotomy
  289. pert to beneath the clavicle
    subclavicular
  290. pert to beneath the ribs
    subcostal
  291. the lower jaw or mandible
    submaxilla
  292. a growing together
    symphysis
  293. chronic cond characterized by pain caused by excessive pronation and supination activites of the forearm; usually caused by strain, as in playing tennis
    tennis  elbow
  294. inflammation of a tendon
    tenoitis
  295. the process of drawing or pulling on bones or muscles to relieve displacement and facliitate healing
    traction
  296. pert to the elbow
    ulnar
  297. pert to the ulna side of the wrist
    ulnocarpal
  298. pert to a vetebra
    vertebral
  299. pert to a vertebra and the sternum
    vertebrosternal
  300. resembling a sword
    oxiphoid
  301. there are ___ bones in the body
    206
  302. What 3 components  makes up the framework or skeleton of the body?
    • bones
    • cartilage
    • ligaments
  303. There are 2 main groups of bones in the sKeleton.   ____ and ____.
    There are 2 main groups of bones in the skeleton. axil and appendiculr .
  304. 80 bones make up the _____ skeleton.  The primary bones are the ___, ___, ___, and ___.
    80 bones make up the axil skeleton.  The primary bones are the skull, spine, ribs, and sternum.
  305. 126 bones make up the _____ skeleton.  The primary bones are the ____, ____, ____, _____, _____, & _____.   (6)
    126 bones make up the apendicular skeleton.  The primary bones are the shoulder girdle, arms, hands, pelvic girdle, legs & feet.   (6)
  306. The ____ are the primary organs of the skeletal system.  The are composed 50/50 of ____ and _____.
    The bones are the primary organs of the skeletal system.  The are composed 50/50 of water and solid material.
  307. Name the 13 movements of the diarthrotic joint.
    • abduction
    • adduction
    • circumduction
    • flexion
    • dorsiflexion
    • extension
    • inversion
    • eversion
    • pronation
    • rotation
    • supication
    • protraction
    • retracton
  308. the spinal column is formed in 4 curves....
    • cervical (7)
    • thoracic (12)
    • lumbar (5)
    • sacral & coccyx (tailbone)
  309. spinal curves help support the ___ of the body & provide the _____ that is necessary to walk.
    spinal curves help support the weight of the body & provide the balance that is necessary to walk.
  310. the ___ ____ is formed by the sacrum, cocyx, & bones that form the hip and pelvic arch, the ilium, pubis, and ischium
    the boney pelvis is formed by the sacrum, cocyx, & bones that form the hip and pelvic arch, the ilium, pubis, and ischium
  311. shaped like a funnel, narrow outlet
    male pelvis
  312. shaped like a basin, oval to round, wide outlet
    female pelvis
  313. most bones are formed by what process
    endochondral ossificiation
  314. the center longitudinal bone growth in children
    epiphyseal plates
  315. 3 abnormal curvatures of the spine
    • scoliosis
    • lordosis
    • kyphosis
  316. abnormal lateral curve of the spine
    scoliosis
  317. abnormal anterior curve of the spine
    lordosis
  318. abnormal thoracic curve of the spine
    kyphosis
  319. solid matter in bone is a calcified, rigid substance known as _____.
    osseous tissue
  320. 3 joint classifications
    • synarthrosis
    • amphiarthrosis
    • diarthosis
  321. an air cavity within certain bones
    sinus
  322. a diagnostic exam of a joint in which air and then a radiopague contrast medium are infected into the joint space, xrays are taken, & internal injuries of the meniscus, cartilage, and ligaments may be seen if present
    arthrography
  323. the process of examining internal structures of a joint via an arthroscope; usually done after an arthrography and before joint surgery
    arthroscopy
  324. the measurement of joint movements and angles via a goniometer
    goniometry
  325. a bone scan that uses a low beam of radiation to measure bone-mineral density and bone loss in the lumbar vertebrae; useful in monitoring osetoporosis
    photon absorptiometry
  326. the process of recording heat patterns of the body's surface; can be used to investigate the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis
    thermography
  327. blood test

    blood test to determine the level of alkaline phosphatase; increased in osteoblastic bone tumors, rickets, osteomalacia, and during fracture healing
    alkaline phosphatase blood test
  328. present in a variety of immunologic diseases; positive result may indicate RA
    antinuclear antibodies    (ANA)
  329. blood test

    the Ca level of the blood may be increased in metastatic bone CA, acute osteoporosis, prolonged immobilization, and during fx healing; may be decreased in osteomalacia and rickets
    calcium (Ca) blood test
  330. blood test

    positive result may indicate RA, acute inflammatory change, and widespread metastastis
    C-Reactive protein blood test
  331. blood test

    phosphorus level of the blood  may be increased in osteoporosis and fx healing
    phosphorus (P) blood test
  332. an immunoglobulin present in the serum of 50 - 95% of adults with RA
    serum rheumatoid factor (RF)
  333. blood test

    uric acid is increased in gout, arthritis, multiple myeloma, and rheumatism
    uric acid blood test
  334. the cervical spine has ___ vertabrae
    7
  335. the thoracic spine has ____ vertabrae
    12
  336. the lumbar spine has __ vertabrae
    5
  337. bone markings:

    an opening in the bone for blood vessels, ligaments, and nerves
    foramen

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