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What are the organs of the respiratory system?
- Lungs - Alveoli
What does the respiratory system do?
Gas exchanges with the blood, in the alveoli of the lung.
What does the nasal cavity do?
- Moistens air
- Traps foreign particles
What do the conchae of the nasal cavity do?
- Increase surface area
- Increase air turbulence
What are the palates made of?
Where are the paranasal sinuses?
- Frontal bone
- Sphenoid bone
- Ethmoid bone
- Maxillary bone
What is the pharnyx?
Muscular passage from the nasal cavity to the larnyx
What are the 3 regions of the pharynx?
- Nasopharnyx - behind nasal cavity
- Oropharnyx - behind mouth
- Laryngopharnyx - attached to the larnyx
What structures are in the pharnyx?
- Auditory Tubes
- Pharyngeal - nose
- Palatine - mouth
- Lingual - tongue
What does the larnyx (voice box ) do?
- Routes air and food to proper channels
- Plays role in speech
What are the parts of the larnyx?
- Thyroid cartilage - largest hyaline cartilage, Adam's apple
- Epiglottis - opening to the larnyx, routes food and air to correct places
- Vocal Cords -
- Glottis - opening between vocal cords
What is the trachea (windpipe)?
- Connects larnyx with bronchi
- Walls reinforced with C-shaped hyaline cartilage
What is the primary bronchi?
- Formed by division of the trachea
- Enters lung at hilus
- Divides into smaller and smaller branches
- Right bronchi is wider, shorter than left.
How many lobes does each side of the lung have?
What are the lung coverings?
- Pulmonary pleura - lung surface
- Parietal pleura - lines walls of the thoracic cavity
- Pleural fluid - fills area between layers of pleura to allow gliding
What are the respiratory tree divisions?
- Primary bronchi
- Secondary bronchi
- Tertiary bronchi
- Terminal bronchioli
What are the bronchioles?
- Smallest branches of the bronchi
- Terminal bronchioles end in alveoli
What is the respiratory zone?
- Respiratory bronchioli
- Alveolar Duct
- Site of gas exchange
What are the structures of the alveoli?
What is the air-blood barrier?
What is gas exchange?
- Oxygen enters the blood
- Carbon dioxide enters the alveoli
What is Pulmonary Ventilation?
Moving air in and out of the lungs
What is external respiration?
gas exchange between pulmonary blood and alveoli
What is respiratory gas transport?
transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide via the blood stream
What is internal respiration?
gas exchange between blood and tissue cells
Phases of breathing (Pulmonary Ventilation)
- Inspiration - air into the lung
- Expiration - air out of the lung
What happens during inspiration?
- Diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract
- Size of thoracic cavity increases
- Air is pulled into the lungs due to increase in intrapulmonary volume
What happens during expiration?
- Muscles relax
- Air is pushed out of the lungs
- *can force air out by contracting internal costal muscles
What keeps the lungs from collapsing?
- Differences between pressure and lung and pleural space
- pleural space pressure is always negative
What are non-respiratory air movements?
What is tidal volume?
- The amount of air that normal breathing moves out of the lungs
- 1200ml remains in lungs
What is the inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)?
- Amount of air that can be taken in forcibly
- 2100 - 3200 ML
What is the Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)?
- Amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled
What is the residual volume?
- Air remaining in the lung after respiration
What is vital capacity?
- Total amount of exchangable air
- TV + IRV + ERV
What is dead space volume?
- Air that remains in the conducting zone and never reaches the alveoli
What is functional volume?
- Air that reaches the respiratory zone
How are respiratory capacities measured?
With a spirometer
How are bronchial sounds produced?
Air rushing in through the trachea and bronchi
How are vesicular breathing sounds produced?
air filling the alveoli
Facts about external respiration:
- Alveoli always have more oxygen than blood
- Oxygen moves by diffusion to area of lower concentration
- Carbon dioxide moves out of the blood
- Blood leaving the lungs is oxygen rich and carbon dioxide poor
How is oxygen transported in blood?
- Inside red blood cells, attached to hemoglobin
- Small amount disolved in plasma
How is carbon dioxide transported in the blood?
In the plasma as bicarbonate ion (HCO3-)
How does internal respiration work?
- Carbon dioxide diffuses out of tissue to blood
- Oxygen diffuses from blood into tissue
What is the normal respiratory rate?
12 - 15 breaths per minute
What is hypernia?
increased respiratory rate due to extra oxygen needs
What is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD?
- Chronic bronchitis and emphysema
- Major cause of death and disability in US
- Commonly caused by smoking
- Coughing and pulmonary infections are common
What is emphysema?
- Alveoli enlarge
- Chronic inflammation of the lungs
- Airways collapse during expiration
- Large amount of energy needed to exhale
What is chornic bronchitis?
- Mucousa of the lower respiratory passages becomes severely inflamed
- Mucous production increases
- Risk of lung infection increases
- Pneumonia is common
3 types of lung cancer:
- Squamous Cell Carcinoma
- Small Cell Carcinoma
How do the lungs develop?
- Lungs filled with fluid in the fetus
- Not fully inflated with air until 2 weeks after birth
What are birth defects of the respiratory system?
- Cystic Fibrosis
- Cleft Palate
How do respiratory rates change throughout life?
- Newborns - 40 - 80
- Infants - 30
- Age 5 - 25
- Adults - 12 - 18
- Rate often increases with old age
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