Skeletal System (exam 3)

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13BlueInkBunnies
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Skeletal System (exam 3)
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2013-07-10 23:48:19
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Skeletal system
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  1. Functions of the skeletal system:
    • 1. Support
    • 2. Protection
    • 3. Movement
    • 4. Mineral homeostasis
    • 5. Blood cell production
    • 6. Energy Storage
  2. 1. Support
    Support of soft tissues and attachment sites for muscles, creating a framework for the body
  3. 2. Protection
    Protection from injury afforded to internal organs by bones which overlie and/or surround them
  4. 3. Movement
    Movement facilitated since bones provide leverage for muscle contraction
  5. 4. Mineral Homeostasis
    Mineral homeostasis particularly of calcium and phosphorus, occurs as minerals are stored in bones and can be mobilized when needed elsewhere in the body
  6. 5. Blood cell production
    Blood cell production occurs in the red bone marrow formed in certain bones
  7. 6. Energy storage
    Energy storage occurs in the lipids found in yellow bone marrow
  8. A band of connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone is a(n)
    • TENDON
  9. Ligaments attach
    BONE to BONE
  10. Chondroblasts produce
    CARTILAGE MATRIX
  11. The type of cartilage associated with bone function and development is
    HYALINE CARTILAGE
  12. Perichondrium
  13. Cartilage Characteristics:
  14. The proper sequence of events in bone repair is:
  15. External Callus(look at pg. 191) 
  16. When blood calcium levels are low
    osteoblast bone matrix or osteoclasts - hormones control Ca levels calcitonin and parotinum blood target tissue a cell
  17. Shapes of bones
    • Long bones- humerus, ulna, metacarpals, femur, tibia, fibula, metatarsals, and phalanges
    • Short bones- carpals and tarsals Sesamoid
    • bones- proximal phalanges and patella
    • Flat bones- occipital, parietal, frontal, zygomatic, nasal, lacrimal, ribs, sternum, and scapula
    • Irregular bones- vertebrae, sacrum, temporal, mandible, maxilla, ethmoid, sphenoid, pelvic, coccyx, and calcaneus
  18. An example of a Long Bone
    Long bones- humerus, ulna, metacarpals, femur, tibia, fibula, metatarsals, and phalanges
  19. An X-ray determines that Peter fractured the shaft of his humerus. The break is in the _______ of the bone.
  20. Which of the following membranes covers the surface of a mature bone?
    PERIOSTEUM
  21. Some marrow of long bones is termed "yellow" marrow under normal conditions. The function of yellow marrow is to
    ENERGY RESERVE
  22. Some marrow of long bones is named "red" marrow. The function of red marrow is to
  23. Bone remodeling
  24. The medullary cavity
  25. Collagen and calcium hydroxyapatite are the primary constituents
  26. The compression (weight-bearing) strength of bone matrix is due to the presence of
    CALCIUM
  27. Bone remodeling and repair
  28. The cell type that is responsible for maintaining bone once it has been formed is the
    OSTEOCYTES
  29. Which of the following cell types is responsible for breaking down bone matrix?
    OSTEOCLASTS
  30. The primary function of osteoblasts is to
    LAY-DOWN MATRIX
  31. The remodeling of bone tissue is a function of
  32. Which of the following is correctly matched?
    Osteocyte, osteoclast, osteoblast,
  33. Which of the following is mismatched?
  34. Cancellous bone tissue
  35. A passageway connecting neighboring osteocytes
    CANALICULI
  36. Haversian systems
    is an OSTEON
  37. The type of lamellae found in osteons is
    CONCENTRIC
  38. Lamellar bone
  39. You would look for concentric lamellae
    OBERSION CANAL
  40. Intramembraneous ossification (def)
  41. Arrange the following events in endochonral ossification in proper sequence:
    • (1) Cartilage model is formed
    • (2) Chondrocytes hypertrophy
    • (3) Cartilage matrix is calcified and chondrocytes die.
    • (4) Blood vessels from the periosteum invade calcified cartilage bring in osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
    • (5) Osteoblasts deposit bone on the surface of the calcified cartilage the primary ossification center
  42. If an X-ray shows a black area in the region of the epiphyseal plate,
    the epiphyseal plate has not completely ossified
  43. Long bones grow in length at the
    rowth in length occurs at epiphyseal plate, involves formation of new cartilage by interstitial cart. growth and appositional growth on surface of cart.
  44. The longitudinal growth of long bones ceases when
    the epiphyseal plate is completely replaced with bone tissue

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