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____ or _______________ anatomy is the study of large body structures visible to the naked eye
______________ is the study of everything in a specific region at the same time
______________ studies systems
________________ is the study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface.
______________ deals with structures to small to be seen
_____________- is the study of cells in the body
_______________ studies the bodies tissues
_________________ traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span
_____________-- concerns developmental changes that occur before birth
________________- concerns kidney function and urine production
_________________ explains the workings of the nervous system.
_______________ examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels
The simplest level of the structural hierarchy is the
Groups of similar cells that have common function
Does cartilage contain blood vessels or nerves?
irregular connective tissue that surounds cartilage is called ________
the perichonfrium, it resists outward expansion
The perichondrium brings ____________ that bring the nutrients to the cartilage
What are the three types of cartilage and where are they found
- Hyaline - covers the end of long bones, ribs, larynx, nose
- Elastic - external ear and epiglotis
- Fibrocartilage - menisci of the knee and invertebral discs
What are the two ways collagen grows?
- Appositional (outside)
- Interstitial (inside)
Describe appositional cartilage growth
cells in the ichondrium secrete matrix against the external face of existing cartilage
Explain interstitial cartilage growth
Lacunae-bound chondrocytes inside the cartilage divide and secrete new matrix, expanding the cartilage from within
Calcification of cartilage occurs during
normal bone growth in young people and old age
What are the two classifications of bones?
- Axial skeleton-bones of the skull, vertebral column and ribcage
- Appendecular skeleton-bones of the upp and lower limbs, shoulder and hip
What are the 5 functions of bones?
- Support-form the framework that supports te body and cradles soft tissue
- Protection-provides a protective case for the brain, spinal cord and vital organs
- Movement-provide levers for muscles
- Mineral Storage-resevoir for minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus
- Blood cell formation-hematopoisis occurs within the marrow cavities and bones
Osteogenesis and ossification is
the process of bone formation
Intramembranous ossification is when
bone developes from a fibrous membrane
When bone forms by replacing hyaline cartilage it is called
The formation of most of the flat bones/frontal, parietal and occipital is called
What are the stages of intramembranous ossification?
- An ossification center appears in the fibrous connective tissue membrane
- Bone matrix is secreted within thhe fibrous membrane
- Woven bone and perioseum form
- Bone collar of compact bone form and red marrow appear
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