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2013-07-09 23:12:05
respiratory anatomy physiology

a&p of respiratory system
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  1. double walled serous membrane that encloses each lung
  2. incapable of gas exchange between air and circulatory system
    conducting division
  3. anterior openings of nasal cavity
    nostrils , nares
  4. converts carbon dioxide to carbonic acid
    carbonic anhydrase
  5. two muscles or muscle groups, responsible for resting (non-forced) inspiration
    diaphragm, external intercostals
  6. identify the components of a respiratory membrane
    • endothelial cell capillary
    • type 1 cell (squamous)
    • one shared basal lamina
  7. a deficiency of of oxygen in a tissue
  8. characterized by a reduction in the number of cilia lining the airway, and increased mucous production
    Chronic bronchitis
  9. enzyme found in erythrocyte that catalyzes the decomposition of carbonic acid into carbon dioxide and water or reverse reaction
    carbonic anhydrase
  10. the nasal septum is composed of ....
    • hyaline cartilage
    • bone tissue
  11. tertiary bronchi channel overflow to the .....
    bronchopulmonary segments of the lobe of the lung
  12. most of the surface area for gas exchange within the respiratory system is found within the ....
    alveoli of the lungs
  13. responsible for generating sound within the larynx
    • vocal cords
    • vocal folds
  14. list the correct order of more proximal airways to more distal airways
    • primary bronchus
    • secondary bronchus
    • tertiary bronchus
    • terminal bronchus
    • respiratory bronchus
  15. Which of these is NOT a paranasal sinus?
    A)sphenoidal sinus
    B)mastoid sinus
    C)maxillary sinus
    D)frontal sinus
    E)ethmoidal sinus
    B)mastoid sinus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Which of these structures prevents the movement of swallowed materials into the larynx?
    A)middle nasal conchae
    C)vestibular folds
    E)both b and c
  17. Arrange the following structures in the correct order as air passes through them traveling from the bronchi:
    1. alveolar duct
    2. alveolus
    3. respiratory bronchiole
    4. terminal bronchiole
  18. For inspiration during labored breathing, which of these muscles is NOT contracted?A)diaphragm
    B)external intercostal muscles
    C)internal intercostal muscles
    D)pectoralis minor muscles
    E)sternocleidomastoid muscles
  19. Visceral pleura is found
    A)inside the terminal bronchioles.
    B)on the surface of the lung.
    C)on the walls of the thorax, diaphragm, and mediastinum.
    D)in the trachea and bronchi.
    on the surface of the lung
  20. Besides lubricating the visceral and parietal pleura, pleural fluid also
    A)holds the visceral and parietal pleural membranes together.
    B)prevents the lungs from overinflating.
    C)helps fill the pleural cavity.
    D)prevents the lungs from leaking.
    E)increases diffusion rates in the lungs.
    A)holds the visceral and parietal pleural membranes together.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Lung recoil occurs because of elastic fibers in the alveolar walls and
    A)pleural pressure.
    B)surfactant secretion in the alveoli.
    C)barometric pressure.
    D)the pneumothorax principle.
    E)surface tension of the fluid that lines the alveoli.
    E)surface tension of the fluid that lines the alveoli.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. At the end of normal inspiration, which of these pressures is the most negative?A)alveolar
  23. Which of these lung volumes/capacities is the largest?
    A)expiratory reserve volume
    B)inspiratory reserve volume
    C)residual volume
    D)tidal volume
    E)vital capacity
    vital capacity
  24. The partial pressure of oxygen in the air is __________ than the partial pressure of carbon dioxide; the solubility of oxygen in water is __________ than the solubility of carbon dioxide in water.
    A)lower, lower
    B)lower, higher
    C)greater, higher
    D)greater, lower
    D) greater, lower
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. If pH decreases, PCO2 increases, or temperature increases, the amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin
    A)remains unchanged.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Which of these factors increases respiratory rate?
    A)increased blood PCO2
    B)all of these
    C)increased pH of cerebrospinal fluid
    D)increased blood pH
    E)increased blood PO2
    A)increased blood PCO2
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. The most important factor for regulating respiratory rate is
    A)bicarbonate level in the blood.
    B)oxygen level in the blood.
    C)CO2 level in the blood.
    D)urea concentration in the blood.
    CO2 level in the blood.
  28. Which of these statements concerning respiration is NOT true?
    A)Higher brain centers can modify the activity of the respiratory center.
    B)A decrease in pH of the blood increases respiration rate.
    C)The Bohr effect allows carbon dioxide to bind more easily to hemoglobin that has released its oxygen.D)An increase in carbon dioxide in the blood causes pH to decrease.
    E)Low oxygen levels in the blood increase respiration rate.
    The Bohr effect allows carbon dioxide to bind more easily to hemoglobin that has released its oxygen.