Tissues and Differentiation

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Tissues and Differentiation
2013-07-12 17:34:26
Anatomy Tissues Differentiation

Tissues and Differentaition, Chapter 1
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  1. Define Tissue.
    a group of similar, specialized cells that work together to perform a common function
  2. Describe Epithelial Tissue.
    A tissue that lines most body internal and external surfaces. Any substance that enters or leaves the body must cross an epithelium.
  3. What are the functions of the ET?
    • 1. Protection
    • 2. Permeability
    • 3. Secretion
    • 4. Sensation
  4. Describe each of the four functions of ET: Protection
    ET provide protection from abrasion, dehydration, etc. It protects both internally and externally. All linings, skin, digestive track, reproductive system.
  5. Describe each of the four functions of ET: Permeability
    ET controls permeability and regulates the exchange between the environment and the body. Tissues can change permeability (In pregnancy, gut absorbs more calcium)

    EX:Lungs are responsible for gas exchange; intestines absorb nutrients and pass the rest,
  6. Describe each of the four functions of ET: Secretion
    all exocrine glands are either dervied from or attached to epithelium

    EX: Oil, mucus, serous fluid
  7. Describe each of the four functions of ET: Sensations
    To give information about the internal and external enviorment

    EX: know when to go to the bathroom.
  8. What are the four characteristics of ET?
    • 1. Cellularity
    • 2. Avascular
    • 3. Polarity
    • 4. Attachement
    • 5. Regeneration
  9. Describe the characteristic of ET: cellularity
    ET is made of mostly cells, joined by cell junctions, usually not very thick.
  10. Describe the characteristic of ET: avascular
    lacks blood supply;uses diffusion of nutrients from underlying tissues or absorption from the environment.
  11. Describe the characteristic of ET: polarity
    There are structural and functional differences between the exposed and attached surface
  12. Describe the characteristic of ET: Attachment
    basal edge attached to underlying tissue; its composed of protein fibers; 

    it restricts the movement of large molecules out of the body and helps to provide strength and integrity of tissue.
  13. Describe the characteristic of ET: regeneration
    Tissue is continuously replaced through rapid divisions of stem cells in the epithelium located near the basal lamina
  14. Describe 3 specializations for  ET.
    1. Movement of fluids over and across epithelium.

    2. Movement of fluids through epithemlium.

    3. Protection from secretions.
  15. Types of Epithelial Tissues
    • 1. Squamous
    • 2. Columnar
    • 3. Cubiodal
    • 4. Transitional
    • 5. Glands
  16. Define and give an example of Cilla.
    Hair like extensions that move substances over epithelial surfaces ad help trap impurities.

    Ex: moving mucus to dump it into the stomach
  17. Define and give an example Microvilli.
    finger-like projections that move fluid through the epithelium and increase surface area for absorption.

    We get more function with more surface area, we see folding to increase surface area to accomplish the function.
  18. Simple Epithelial Tissue
    • 1. Location:
    • 2. Function:
    • 3. Composition:
    • 4. Details:
  19. Simple Epithelial Tissue
    • 1. Location: Usually serves as the outer layer of a cell.
    • 2. Function: Secretion and absorption 
    • 3. Composition: Single layer of cells
    • 4. Details: fragile, more permeable than stratified.
  20. Stratified Epithelial Tissue
    • 1. Location: Also on the outer layer but could also be below a layer of simple epithelial
    • 2. Function: protection
    • 3. Composition: multiple layers of cells
    • 4. Details:
  21. Simple Squamous
    • 1. Location: capillaries, alveoli; serous lining of ventral cavity
    • 2. Function: exchange gases & nutrients (Cap); secrete slippery substance to reduce friction 
    • 3. Composition: composed of thin flattened cells, like a fried egg
    • 4. Details: they are exchange epithelia, for rapid exchange of materials.
  22. Stratified Squamous
    • 1. Location: Depends but mostly they are on top.
    • 2. Function: protection, 
    • 3. Composition: composed of many layers of cells.
    • 4. Details: Keratinized-found as part of the skin (water proofing protein)
    • Non-Keratinized- found in the mouth, tongue, esophagus, vagina and anus.
  23. Collagen fibers
    • 1. long and straight, most common
    • 2. composed of bundles of protein 
    • 3. strong
    • 4. Located: tendons and ligaments, in ct that surrounds the organs
  24. Reticular Fibers
    thin, branching fibers

    works like a mesh webbing; like a collander for cells

    connective tissue, found in the spleen
  25. Elastic fibers
    branched wavy fibers


    found in connective tissue
  26. Fibroblast
    • 1. location: within the connective tissue, stationary
    • 2. function: responsible for maintaining connective tissue.
    • 3. composition:protein subunit of fiber
    • 4. details- build fiber
  27. Macrophages
    • 1. location: scattered throughout the CT
    • 2. function: phagocytize pathogens, release chemotatic factors to illicit an immune response.
    • 3. composition:  large cell
    • 4. Details: fixed: attached to CT in certain organs, migrating: free to migrate or roam
  28. Mast Cells
    • 1. location: mobile
    • 2. function: mount an immune response and increase inflammation
    • 3. composition: cells
    • 4. details: response to infection or injury
  29. Areolar (Loose connective tissue)
    • 1. location: found all over the body, most membranes, package organs, surrounds capillaries
    • 2. function: wraps and cushions the organs, has macrophages which phagocyte the bacteria, plays a role in inflammation
    • 3. composition: lg variety of fibers and cell, in ground substance aka gel matrix, with fibroblasts, macrophages. and mast cells.
    • 4. details:
  30. Adipose LCT
    • 1. location: hypodermis, around kidneys and eyeballs, abs, breasts
    • 2. function: energy reserve, insulation, supports and protects organs.
    • 3. composition: fat droplets with nuclei on the side.
  31. Reticular LCT
    • 1. location: lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen
    • 2. function: reticular fibers created by reticular cells support functions cells of the organs/structures.
    • 3. composition: reticular fibers in a network, looks like cherry blossoms
  32. Dense irregular CT
    • 1. location: joints, dermis, digestive tract
    • 2. function: withstand tension in many directions, structural strength
    • 3. composition: collagen fibers are interwoven
  33. Dense regular CT
    • 1. location: tendons, most ligaments,
    • 2. function: attaches muscles to bones or to muscles, withstands great tensile stress pulling force in one direction
    • 3. composition: parallel collagen fibers, few elastic fibers, major cell type fibroblast
  34. Elastic (DCT)
    • 1. location: walls of large arteries, vertebrate column, walls of bronchial tubes
    • 2. function: allows recoil of tisse, maintains pulsing of blood through artieries
    • 3. composition: high proportion of elastic fibers.
  35. Supportive CT
    dense ground substance with closed packed fibers

    • 1. cartilage
    • 2. bone
  36. Hyaline Cartilage
    • 1. location: embryonic skeleton, nose
    • 2. function:
    • 3. composition: fine collagen fibers
  37. Elastic Cartilage
    • 1. location: ear, epiglotis
    • 2. composition: elastic fibers make its flexible and resilient
  38. Fibrocartilage
    • 1. location: inter vertebral discs, discs of knee joints
    • 2. Function: provides a lot of strength, resists compresion.
    • 3. composition: dense collagen fibers and little ground substance
  39. Osteocytes
    1. location: found in a lacunae around a blood vessel that are connected to one another through extensions that run through networks.