foundation of health education quiz 1

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foundation of health education quiz 1
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  1. health
    • “the state of complete mental, physical and social well being not merely the
    • absence of disease or infirmity

    • “is a dynamic state or condition
    • of the human organism that is multidimensional in nature, a resource for
    • living, and results from a person’s interaction with and adaptations to his or
    • her environment

    its a process
  2. community heath
  3. “the
    • health status of a defined group of people and the interactions and conditions
    • to protect and improve the health of the community”
  4. health education
    • any combination of planned learning experiences based on sound theories that
    • provide individuals, groups, and communities the opportunity to acquire
    • information and the skills needed to make quality health decisions
  5. health promotion
    • any planned combination of educational, political, environmental, regulatory, or
    • organizational mechanisms that support actions and conditions of living
    • conducive to the health of individuals, groups, and communities
  6. disease prevetion
    • the process of reducing risks and alleviating disease to promote, preserve, and
    • restore health and minimize suffering and distress
  7. relationship of health education and promotion
  8. public health
    • is the science and the art of protecting and improving the health of communities
    • through education, promotion of healthy lifestyles, and research for disease
    • and injury prevention
  9. gobal health
    • health problems, issues, and concerns that transcend national boundaries, may be
    • influenced by circumstances or experiences in other countries, and are best
    • addressed by cooperative actions and solutions
  10. population health
    • the health status of people who are not organized and have no identity as a group
    • or locality and the actions and conditions to promote, protect, and preserve
    • their health
  11. coordinated school health program
    • an organized set of policies, procedures, and activities designed to protect,
    • promote, and improve the health and well-being of students and staff, thus
    • improving a student’s ability to learn. It includes, but is not limited to,
    • comprehensive school health education; school health services; a healthy school
    • environment; school counseling; psychological and social services; physical
    • education; school nutrition services; family and community involvement in
    • school health; and school-site health promotion for staff
  12. wellness
    • an approach to health that focuses on balancing the many aspects, or dimensions,
    • of a person’s life through increasing the adoption of health-enhancing
    • conditions and behaviors rather than attempting to minimize conditions of
    • illness
  13. epidemiology
    • the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in
    • specific populations, and the application of this study to control health
    • problems
  14. federal governments document for goals and objectives for U.S
    health people 2020
  15. rate
    • is a measure of some event, disease, or condition in relation to a unit of
    • population, along with some specification of time
  16. morbidity
    The rate of incidence of a disease
  17. mortality
    death rate
  18. endemic
    Prevalent in or peculiar to a particular locality, region, or people
  19. epidemic
    Spreading rapidly and extensively by infection and affecting many individuals in an area or a population at the same time
  20. pandemic
    over a wide geographic area and affecting a large proportion of the population
  21. primary role of health educator
    • •The practice of health education specialists is to be
    • able to carry out all that is associated with the tasks identified in the
    • figure below.

    • 1) assessing needs 
    • 2) setting goals and objectives
    • 3) developing an intervention 
    • 4) implementing the intervention 
    • 5)evaluating the results
  22. The Health Field Concept
    –human biology (heredity) 

    –environment

    –health care organization

    –lifestyle (health behavior)
  23. The Determinants of Health
    –gestational endowment (30%)

    –social circumstances (15%)

    –environmental conditions (5%)

    –health behavior (40%)

    –medical care (10%)
  24. primary prevention
    preventive measures that forestall the onset of illness or injury during the prepathogenesis period
  25. secondary prevention
    preventive measures that lead to early diagnosis and prompt treatment of a disease illness or an injury to limit disability, impairment, or dependency and precent more severe pathogenesis
  26. tertiary prevention
    preventive measures aimed at rehabilitation following significant pathogenesis
  27. risk factors
    • - those inherited, environmental, & behavioral influences “which are known (or
    • thought) to increase the likelihood of physical or mental problems

    • types of risk factors=
    • –Modifiable
    • (changeable or controllable)

    –Nonmodifiable (nonchangeable or noncontrollable)
  28. health risk reduction
    must understand both communicable and noncommunicable diseases
  29. chain of infection
    • -pathogen 
    • -human reservoir
    • -portal of exit 
    • -transmission
    • -portal of entry
    • -establishment of disease in new host
  30. advocacy
    alter public opinion
  31. empowerment
    gaining control over own life
  32. culturally competent
    work effectively with other cultures
  33. Hippocrates
    •Theory of disease causation

    •Distinguished between endemic & epidemic diseases

    •The first epidemiologist & father of medicine
  34. Code of Hammurabi
    • -written record concerning public health
    • -named after the king of babylon
    • -contained laws pertaining to health practices and physicians, including the first known fee schedule
  35. Age of enlightenment
    • -1700s
    • - period of revolution, undustrialization, and growth in cities
    • - disease and epidemics were frequent
  36. Miasmas theory
    -Disease from vapors

    - the general belief was that disease was formed in filth and that epidemics were caused by some type of poison that developed in the putrefaction process. the vapors, or miasmas, rising from this totting refuse could travel through the air for great distances and were believed to result in disease when inhaled.
  37. father of american medicine
    Benjamin Rush
  38. focus of health in 1850-1950
    • -emphaisis on treatment over prevention 
    • - reform of public health
  39. Horace Mann and Massachusetts Board of Education
    • •1837, Horace Mann, Secretary of Massachusetts Board of
    • Education, called for mandatory programs of hygiene
  40. School Health Education Study
    –1964, School Health Education Study (SHES): Dr. Elena Sliepcevich 

    • •Phase 1, Surveys of students & administrators;
    • results were appalling

    • Phase 2, Health
    • curriculum; 10 conceptual areas
  41. philosophy
    • •Word philosophy comes from Greek and literally means “the love of wisdom” or
    • “the love of learning”

    -Philosophy – statement summarizing the attitudes,principle, beliefs, values, and concepts held by an individual or group
  42. predominant health education/promotion philosphies
    • •Behavior change philosophy – focuses on modifying unhealthy habits
    • •Cognitive-based philosophy – focuses on the acquisition of content & factual informatiion
    • •Decision-making philosophy – emphasizes critical thinking and lifelong learning
    • •Freeing/functioning philosophy – focuses on freeing people to make best health decision for them based on their needs and interests– not necessarily for society
    • •Social change philosophy – emphasizes creating social, economic, &
    • political change that benefits health of individuals & groups
    • •Eclectic philosophy – focuses on an adapting approach that is appropriate for setting
  43. Loren Bensley
    • “…the development of individual potential through decision making and
    • action.”
  44. Joyce Fetro
    • – “…an ‘ongoing process’…this
    • implies continuous movement”
  45. Marian Hamburg
    • • – “unexpected opportunities appear,”
    • “mentorship,” “cooperation,” & “networking”
  46. John Seffrin
    – “…enabling of individuals to achieve a level of personal freedom…”
  47. Everett Koops view on HIV/AIDS as a health vs. a moral problem
    he championed the cause of HIV/AIDS education by stressing that the epidemic is a health problem that requires a health-based prevention message. 

    He insisted that HIV/AIDS prevention education include the merits of abstinence, the disseminations of needles to inner-city addicts and the increased availability of condoms to individuals who choose to be sexually active or promiscuous
  48. ethics
    the study of morality one of the three major areas of philosophy also referred to as moral philosophy
  49. metaphysics
    the study of the nature of reality
  50. epistemology
    the study of knowledge
  51. consequentialism
    evaluate the moral status of an act by the goodness of the consequences (aka teleological theories)
  52. behavior change philosophy
    involves a health education specialist using behavioral contracts, goal setting, and self-monitoring to help foster and motivate the modification of an unhealthy habit in an individual with whom the heath education specialist is working
  53. holistic philosophy
    the philosophy that the mind and the body blend into a single unit; the person is a unified being
  54. basic principles for common moral ground
    •Value of Life – First & most basic principle

    • •Goodness or Rightness – Subdivided into two related principles
    •      –Nonmaleficence – First duty is
    • to do no harm
    •     –Beneficence or Benevolence – Doing good; actions that provide for the greater good of the community

    •Justice or Fairness – just in distributing goodness & badness

    •Honesty or Truthfulness – at the heart of any moral relationship is communication; telling the truth

    • •Individual freedom (equality principle or principle of autonomy) – people must have the freedom to choose their own way of being
    • ethical within the framework of the other principles.
  55. mellerts ethical decision making model
    1) place= be aware of appropriateness of an action in a particular enivorment

    2) time= be aware of history leading up to decision 

    3) identity= who am i 

    4) social relationships= be aware that making more decisions will impact social relationships 

    5) the ideal= when making a moral decision aim for the most noble ideals of humanity

    6) the concrete= never lose sight of the fact that choices arise from concrete events

    7) seriousness= when making a moral decision do so with an attitude that is appropriate to the situation
  56. informed consent
    requires: a) disclosure of relevant informations to prospective participants b) their comprehension of the information and c) their voluntary agreement, free from coercion and undue influence to participate
  57. steps in making an ethical decision
    • 1) define the problem, identify the ethical issue, and gather relevant information 
    • 2) identify who will be affected 
    • 3) contemplate the ultimate goals and ideals 
    • 4)identify the alternatives 
    • 5) consider the consequences of the alternatives
    • 6)consider the nature of the alternatives 
    • 7) reflect on yourself 
    • 8) reflect on society and environment 
    • 9) apply the categorical imperative 
    • 10) choose an alternative, provide a rationale, act and monitor the results
  58. Code of ethics for health education
    • 1) responsibility to the public 
    • 2)responsibility to the profession 
    • 3)responsibility to employers 
    • 4) responsibility in the delivery of health education 
    • 5) responsibility in research and evaluation 
    • 6) responsibility in professional preparation
  59. ethical issues in community interventions
    • 1) confidentiality 
    • 2) consent
    • 3) disclosure 
    • 4) competence 
    • 5) conflict of interest
    • 6) grossly unethical behavior 
    • 7) general ethical responsibilities
  60. why do you need a philosophy
    •The answer is both simple and complex

    • •Helps form the basis for reality; how we see
    • the world
    • •One’s philosophy needs to be synchronous in
    • all aspects of life

    • •Helps to determine how one lives, works,
    • plays, & generally approaches life.

    • •Key factor in choice of occupation, spouse,
    • religion, & friends
  61. •Primary sources
    • – ...written by the person who actually conducted the
    • experiments or observed the events, e.g.,
    • refereed or peer-reviewed journal articles (somenow in electronic format and know as “open access” journals), legislative
    • records, minutes of meeting
  62. secondary sources
    • written by someone who was not present or
    • did not participate as part of the study team, e.g., journal review articles,
    • editorials, non-eyewitness accounts
  63. tertiary sources
    • information that has been
    • distilled & collected from primary & secondary sources; includes facts,
    • e.g., handbooks, pamphlets, fact books, dictionaries
  64. cinahal
    • -database 
    • -nursing, biomedicine, health sciences
  65. where do you find a full text
    journal
  66. refereed journal
    A refereed journal is a particular type of scholarly journal in which each article is judged or refereed by experts in the field. Scholarly journals generally contain articles written by professors or researchers publishing the results of their work

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