Chapter 1 Lang Development

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Chapter 1 Lang Development
2013-07-10 16:07:08
343 Speech Lang Devep Levy Craven

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  1. what is language defined as?
    a system of conventional spoken or written symbols used by people in a shared culture to communicate with one another
  2. what are the 4 characteristics of language?
    • it is a system of symbols
    • shared, if sound is not there, it is still communication
    • system is conventional
    • it is a tool for human communication
  3. language as a system of symbols
    • the symbols or code are morphemes, the smallest unit of language that carry meaning (s, ed, er, ing)
    • language code refers to translating one type of info into another type of info
    • one of the more important aspects of language code is that the relationship between a word and its referent is arbitrary
  4. lang characteristics
    lang is shared
    • shared by community or culture that uses it
    • lang community is a group of people who use a common language
    • lc can form for economic reasons, for sociological or geographic reasons
  5. lang characteristics
    lang system is conventional
    • it is the specific, systematic and rule governed conventions it must follow in order to make it non-random
    • rules are known by the community, therefore when errors occur they are noted
  6. lang characteristics
    lang is a tool of communication
    • communication is process of sharing info between 2 persons and other species such as dogs, birds etc., communicate, they don't have the capacity to use lang as a tool to communicate
    • HOWEVER there are dogs who alert humans prior to a seizure, to the presence of cancer
  7. lang characteristics
    lang as a module of human cognition
    • believed that lang emerged as means of communication and evolved as the community increased
    • brain uses lang as a tool (ie casa and house)store info through representations
    • cognitive process of reasoning, hypothesizing, memorizing, planning and problem solving are higher level lang skills
    • referred to as scientific and mathematical reasoning
  8. what is hearing defined as?
    sensory system that allows speech to enter into and be processed by the human brain
  9. Model of Speech Production
    Stage 1
    • stage 1 - perceptual event
    •     phoneme: smallest unit of sound that can signal a difference in meaning
    •     initiated with mental abstract representative of speech stream to be produced 
    •     abstract representative is lang code and provides a perceptual...
  10. Model of Speech Production
    stage 2
    • stage 2: development of a motor schema to represent the perceptual language-based representation (schema: diagram, plan, an underlying organizational pattern or structure; conceptual framework)
    •     rough motor plan based on abstract representative of perceptual target
  11. Model of Speech Production
    stage 3
    • stage 3: production of speech or speech output
    •     Flow of air vibration of vfs and movements of the oral cavity carryout motor schema and create speech
    •     ongoing feedback relays info about speech output back to origination of perceptual target and motor schema
    •     timing delivery and precision
  12. speech perception
    • refers to how the brain processes speech and language
    • difference from auditory perception which is more general term of brain processing any auditory info
    • specialized processors in the brain evolved specifically to respond to human speech and language
  13. auditory overshadowing
    (sloutsky and napolitano, 2003): young child's preference for auditory over visual info (say it again as opposed to see it again)
  14. co-articulation
    overlap of phonemes in the production of strings of speech sounds
  15. what are the 3 types of feedback?
    • linguistic feedback: speaking (I understand)
    • non-linguistic or extralinguistic feedback: eye contact, facial expression, posture, proximity
    • paralinguistic: use of pitch, loudness, pausing
  16. what does feedback prevent
    communication breakdowns (inability to have receiver and sender understand one another
  17. conversational repair
    occurs when the message isn't communicated appropriately, help to understand, no change in message but gives further info
  18. what are the major domains of language?
    • form: how words, sentences, and sounds are organized to convey content
    • content: meaning of language, lexicon which is our vocab system, contextualized lang-focus is on immediate contact
    • use: how we draw on lang to meet our personal and social needs
  19. form:
    phonology and syntax
    • phonology: rules of language governing the use of sounds in words
    •     allophones-subtle variations of phonemes that occur due to contextual influences
    •     phonemes: meaningful sounds
    •         39 phonemes in standard english
    •         15 vowels, 24 consonants

    syntax: rules relating to internal organization of sentences
  20. content:
    • rules of meaning
    • considers meaning of various words and phrases (bear [animal], bare [naked], bare [emotion]
  21. use:
    • rules that govern:
    • using language for different functions or intentions (communication intentions)
    • organizing language for discourse (conversation)
    • knowing what to say and how to say it (social conversations
  22. what are the 5 features of language
    • acquisition rate
    • universality
    • species specific
    • semanticity
    • productivity
  23. features of language
    acquisition rate
    • at birth no vocab, by 1 hundreds of words, with rapidly increasing level of vocab (can have thousands of words by 5)
    • first 5-7 yrs of life are critical for lang devep
    • "window of opportunity" during which lang develops most rapidly
    • similar to the crucial time for other species to learn essentials of survival
  24. features of language
    • the idea that all people have a cognitive infrastructure that the apply to learning language
    • all persons across would apply the same cognitive infrastructure and the lack of learning language
    • way in which children learn lang and the time points of achieving certain milestones is fairly invariant across the world's lang communities
  25. features of language
    species specificity
    • language is a capacity unique to humans. other species can communicate, however, their abilities are considered iconic (transparent btw what is communicated and how)
    • humans combine symbols in a way syntax allows communication
  26. features of language
    • ability to share what happened previously, in the moment or in the future.
    •     decontextualized events-events that are removed from the present
    •     human lang has no boundaries of time and space
    •     arbitrary relationships btw a referent and the lang used to describe it
    •     shared by no other species
  27. features of language
    • combining a small number of discrete units into an infinite, novel combinations (goes along with the concept of lang learning or acquisition)
    •     so many different ways to say one thing
    •     capability of producing an endless amount of ideas and new constructions
    •     inherent to lang in its earliest stages of cognition
  28. language differences
    • 2 children of the same age have a range of differences in lang ability
    • children continually evolve so children won't be exposed to only language at his level but at the level above as well.
    • influences-
    •     dialects: natural variations of a lang based on cultural or geographic boundaries
    •     effect form, content, and use
    •     common for all lang
    •     bilingualism: acquisition of two or more languages
    •         code switching-interchanging two dif langs
    •         simultaneous bilingualism-learn two lang at once
    •         sequential bilingualism-learn one lang then another
    •     african american vernacular english- considered lang diversity or difference, several ethnicities use this
    •     gender-girls have advantage over boys in lang development
    •         girls start earlier than boys
    •         girls develop vocab faster than boys in the second year of life
    •     genetic predisposition-
    •         genetics may impact lang
    •         twin studies are used to look at genetic predisposition and lang disorders
    •     lang-learning environment-
    •         environment in which children are reared exerts considerable influence on their lang development
    •         neural architecture is calibrated based on input from the environment concerning the form, content, use of langs to which they are exposed
    •             quantity-amount of langs child experiences
    •             quality-characteristics of the lang spoken in the care-giving environment of the child
  29. language impairment
    • difficulties in the development of lang
    • achieve milestones more slowly than others
    • longstanding difficulties with various aspecrs of lang form, content, use
    • probs with syntax, pragmatics and the like
    • heritable lang impairment
    • specific lang impairment (sli)
    •     depressed lang abilities, typically with no other concominant impairment of intellect 
    •     affects 7-10%
    •     most frequent cause for early interventin and special ed services for young children
    •     evidence suggests it is a heritable condition