Chapter 2 The Science and Theory of Language Development

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  1. goals of speech perception
    learn about the kinds of lang capabilities that infants have when they arrive into the world and how children use their speech perception to learn lang
  2. methods for studying speech perception
    • present auditory stimuli to participants and measure their response to the stimuli
    • digitization-preserve media, ensure high quality presentations of auditory stimuli and fine manipulation of the stimuli to allow infants to segment words from the speech stream 
    • in utero heart rate and kicking response to auditory stimuli
    • head turn preference procedure
  3. what happens in the head turn preference procedure
    • 3 sided booth
    • green light stimulus in front of infant and red light stimulus to right and left
    • when the baby attends to stimulus sound is presented at the same time
    • record the amount of time the infant attends to stimulus
    • when infant turns away from stimulus for a certain amount of time, stimulus is terminated
    • result: infant pays more attention to stimulus with stress patterns of english lang as opposed to others
  4. normative research
    develop normative references that detail when we can expect children to achieve certain language milestones
  5. what is the primary issue to address in terms of lang devep theories
    how children go about learning their native language
  6. what do infants bring to the task of lang learning
    nature v nurture
    some aspects of the lang system are innate while others are acquired through individual's experience within their communities
  7. what mechanisms drive lang acquisitions?
    • domain specific: dedicated only to the tasks of comprehending and producing lang
    • domain general: same skills as used in other situations like problem solving
    • modularity: theoretical idea that the brain is organized for various cognitive processes
  8. what types of input support the lang-learning system
    • kinds of input that drive lang development after birth, as children grow and develop
    •     increasing knowledge of social conventions
    •     hear more and more lang: use positive evidence that other people provide to make assumptions about the structure of their native lang
  9. nurture inspired theory
    • empiricist theories, humans gain all knowledge through experience 
    •     blank slate
  10. nature-inspired
    • nativist theories, much of our knowledge is innate and genetically transmitted rather than learned by experience
    •     underlying lang system is in place at birth
  11. nurture inspired theories
    • bf skinner all learning is the result of operant conditioning
    • operant conditioning-consequences of behaviors shape subsequent behaviors
    • lang not a special behavior
    • stimuli in the environment elicit verbal responses, or lang from children     
    • each step in the process serves to stimulate each successive behavior
  12. nurture inspired theories
    applied behavior analysis

    • Principles of operant conditioning: stimulus, response, and reinforcement
    • can be intensive and time-consuming
    • requires training in ABA
    • may require several hours per week of one-on-one therapy      
    • Discrete trial training (DTT): series of trials that the adult or therapist repeats until the child masters the target skills (breaks things down to the nth degree, used with younger individuals)      
    • application in building lang skills
  13. Nurture inspired social-interactionist theory
    • Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934): importance of social interaction in children’s language development
    • all human knowledge exists first on a social plane and then on psychological plane
    •     lang as a uniquely human ability that exists independent of general cognition
    •     starting at about 2 yr of age
  14. theoretical differences in piagt and vygotsky
    • p=
    •     cog development is independent of language
    •     dev schemes are independent, requiring little guidance
    •     interaction with peers is more valuable
    •     culture is not important in determining thinking styles

    • v=
    •     lang is essential for cog dev
    •     activities are facilitated and interpreted by more competent individuals
    •     interaction with advanced individuals is more valuable
    •     culture is critical in determining thinking styles
  15. comparing perspectives btw piaget and vygotsky
    • piaget-individual constructive processes
    • vygotsky-social
  16. comparing perspectives btw piaget and vygotsky 
    • p=children can accommodate only when
    •     they can also assimilate the obects
    •     they can think logically about new problems only if they have constructed                                     the relevant logical operations

    v=an ever changing...
  17. comparing perspectives btw piaget and vygotsky
    p=children develop more sophisticated thought processes when they encounter phenomena that create disequilibrium

    v=children benefit most from tasks that they can perform only with assistance
  18. comparing perspectives btw piaget and vygotsky
    social interaction
    p=others present info and arguments that create disequilibrium and foster perspective taking

    v=children internalize the processes they use with others until, ultimately, they can use them independently
  19. Noam Chomsky
    • system of grammatical rules and constraints across all the world's languages
    • lang acquisitions depends on an innate species specific module that is dedicated to lang and not to other forms of hearing
    •     lang acquisition device LAD- born with basic set of grammatical rules and categories that exist in all lnaguages
    •     lang is not a developmental phenomenon
    •     born with linguistic competence, mistakes and omissions in speech are indicative of performance difficulties and not a lack of competence
    •     performance issues make it hard to accomplish the ability to be completely competent in speech
  20. Syntactic bootstrapping
    • children utilize the syntactic frames surrounding unknown verbs in order to successfully constrain the possible interpretations of those verbs
    • focused specifically on syntactic development
    • children arrive at the task of lang learning with knowledge of syntactic categories and utilize it to understand the meaning of words that fill various positions in sentences
  21. semantic bootstrapping
    • children deduce grammatical structures using word meanings that they acquire by observing
    • events around them
  22. prosodic bootstrapping
    • infants use their sensitivity to the acoustic properties of speech (pitch, rhythm, pauses, stress) to make inferences about the units of lang such as clauses, phrases and words
    •     able to isolate important lang units from running speech 
    •     ask questions with different prosody and rhythm etc.
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Chapter 2 The Science and Theory of Language Development
2013-07-10 23:01:13
343 Speech Lang Development Levy Craven

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