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2013-07-11 01:06:26
principles life

ch 8
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  1. Two genetic theories
    Blending and particulate
  2. A type of inheritance where each determinant is physically distinct and remains intact during fertilization
  3. An observable physical feature
  4. A form or character
  5. The type of breeding mendel worked with
    True breeding.
  6. When plants all mated with the same trait and charater.
    True breeding.
  7. Order of generations
    P > F1 + F1 = F2
  8. In mendel’s experiments, what was a recessive trait
    When it disappeared in F1 generation and reappeared in F2.
  9. The trait that appears from P to F1 is
    Dominant trait
  10. Which theory did mendel support
    Particulate. He rejected blending
  11. The ratio of dominant traits to recessive traits in F2
  12. Mendel proposed that determinants occur in ______; and are segregated in the ______.
    Pairs; gametes.
  13. True breeding pairs have two copies of same allele; that is, they are
    Homozygous for the allele.
  14. Mendel’s first law
    Law of segregation
  15. Law of segregation
    States that two copies of a gene separate when an individual makes gametes; each receives one copy.
  16. A short sequence on a longer DNA molecule
  17. The kinds of molecules that make up chromosomes
  18. Mendel’s second experiment involved
    Crossing peas that differed in two characters. Shape and color of seed.
  19. Mendel’s second experiment was known as
    A dihybrid cross
  20. When alleles maintain associations seen in parental generation,
    They could be linked.
  21. If alleles are independent, gametes could be
    In equal numbers
  22. Mendel’s second law
    Law of independent assortment
  23. Law of independent of assortment
    Alleles of different genes assort independently during formation. Chromosomes segregate independently.
  24. Probability that both will happen (joint probability)
    Multiply probabilities together.
  25. Genetics use pedigrees to determine
    Whether a rare allele is dominant or recessive
  26. Pattern or inheritance for a rare dominant allele.
    Every person with abnormal phenotype has affected parent; all (homozygous) or half (heterozygous) of offspring are affected when parent is affected.
  27. Pattern of inheritance for a rare recessive allele
    Affected people have two unaffected parents; ¼ of children of unaffected parents are affected.
  28. Rare, stable, inherited changes in genetic material
  29. A gene with wild type allele that is present less than 99% of time is
  30. Two alleles of a gene produce phenotypes that are both present in heterozygote
  31. Phenotypic expression of a gene is influenced by another
  32. A cross between two different true breeding homozygoes. Can result in super offspring
    Hybrid vigor; heterosis
  33. Traits that are measured rather than assessed qualitatively
    Quantitative traits.
  34. What two factors determine phenotype of an organism.
    Genotype and environment
  35. The proportion of individuals with a certain phenotype that SHOW the phenotype
  36. The degree to which genotype is expressed in an individual
  37. A particular site on a chromosome
    Locus (loci)
  38. This can alter a gene’s pattern of inheritance
    Gene linkage
  39. Genetic linkage was discovered by
    Thomas Hung Morgan
  40. This drosophilia melanogaster is known as model organism because
    Size, ease of breeding, and shot generation time
  41. In THMs experiments, he saw that some ratios violated law of independent assortment. Instead…
    They were inherited together.
  42. Morgan theorized that
    Loci linked on same chromosome and could assort independently.
  43. Some offspring showed phenotypes different from their parents.. meaning
    They were recombinant phenotypes.
  44. How do recombinants happen?
    Two chromatids of four recombine.
  45. How to measure recombinant frequencies
    Number of recombined offspring / total number of offspring
  46. Recombinant frequencies can be used to
    Make genetic maps showing the arrangement of genes along chromosomes.
  47. Recombinant frequencies are converted to
    Map units which can be used to measure distances between genes.
  48. How many pairs of chromosomes does the fruit fly have
    3 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes.
  49. Which chromosomes don’t follow Mendelian patterns?
  50. Male sex chromosomes are
  51. Inheritance of a gene that is carried on a sex chromosome
    Sex-linked inheritance
  52. 4 facts about x-linked recessive phenotypes
    Common in males, male can only pass to daughters, daughters who receive one are heterozygous carriers, mutant phenotype can skip a generation if it passes from male, to daughter, to her son.
  53. Other than the nuc, where else are genes found
    Mitochondria and plastids
  54. Who are mitochondria and plastids inherited from
  55. How do bacteria exchange genes?
    Bacterial conjugations
  56. A projection that initiates contacts between cells
    Sex pilus
  57. How does bacterial conjugation work?
    Donor fragments and some material enters recipient cell
  58. Small circular DNA molecules next to the main chromosome that some bacteria have
  59. Categories of genes on the plasmids
    Metabolic tasks, conjugation, antibiotic resistance
  60. Plasmids have the ability to
    Move between cells at conjugation, replicate independently of main chromosome and add their genes by the recipient’s genome.