Card Set Information
Hemo and Lymph System
General functions of blood?
transportation of nurtients, oxygen, cellular wastes
Regulation of blood pressure, pH, fluid balance
transportation of cells
blood cells are suspended in what?
the blood plasma
The blood is made of what?
formed elements: RBC, WBC, platelets and plasma
The formed elements in the blood are made by what? Which is found where?
Produced by the red bone marrow a hemopoietic tissue found in the flat bones, irregular bones and the epiphyses of long bones ( in children)
Liquid portion of the blood
Plasma contains what clotting factors?
prothrombin and fibrinogen
Fibrinogen and Prothrombin are made synthesized where?
synthesized by the liver, and helps to maintain blood pressure and blood volume by pulling tissue fluid into the venous ends of the capillary network
Alpha and beta globulins are what? and are found where to do what?
they are antibodies, that are found in the plasma, and hlep with immunity
Mature RBC do not have what
RBC carry what?
Oxygen bonded to the iron on the hemoglobin
Lack of iron, hemoglobin or RBC can cause what?
Anemia, SOB and weakness
Rate of RBC production is influenced by what?
the blood oxygen level
When the blood O2 level is low, the _____ will secrete ____ in order to _____ (increase/decrease) RBC production
kidneys; erythropoeitin; increase
immature red blood cell
What are some of the dietary requirements required for the normal production of RBC
RBC live for about how long?
When RBC die, they are phagocitized by what?
Iron is returned to where after the RBC die?
Red bone marrow or is stored in the liver
The heme portion of the hemoglobin is converted to what?
The liver converts heme to bilirubin which is excreted into bile for elimination into the feces
Increased bilirubin levels can cause what?
First line of defense in an infection
are increased in an allergic rxn; combat the effects of histamine
apart of the inflammatory response
Capillaries do not have what?
they do not have smooth muscle so they cannot constrict
How do platelets form a platelet plug?
they become sticky and adhere to the rough edges of the broken capillary and to one another
prothrombinase converts _____ to _____?
prothrombin to thrombin
thrombin converts _____ to _____?
fibrinogen to fibrin to form the clot
What mineral is needed for clotting?
If the red bone marrow fails to produce RBC, which to organs will perform this function?
the liver and spleen
The spleen contains _____; that conduct immune responses...
B cells and T cells
Signs and symptoms of abnormal bleeding?
small purplish hemorrhagic spots under the skin?
Larger areas of discoloration from hemorrhage under the skin/ bruising...
Hemorrhage under the skin, mucous membranes and organs
- any nosebleeds or unusual bleeding?
- bloody or black stools?
Clubbed fingers == hypoxia or anemia
Less efficient immune system
=== risk for infection
risk for anemia
slowed erythrocyte production
risk for anemia
reduced plasma volume
increased risk for dehydration
Bone marrow Biopsy
obtained from the sternum, spinous processes of vertebrae, or iliac crest
International normalization ratio
: 2.0 - 3.0
What size needle can you use for blood administration?
18 - 20 G
What is the only solution that you should use with blood administration?
Normal Sterile Saline
How long can you allow blood to hang for?
No longer that 4 hours
Usually 2-4 hours
When administering blood; a transfusion reaction usually occurs when?
During the first 5 - 15 mins
Hemolytic Reaction to blood signs and symptoms?
back pain, chest pain, chills, fever, SOB, N/V,
At the first sign of a tranfustion reaction what should you do?
Stop transfusion and stay with the patient
What is circulatory overload caused by?
A rapid transfusion in a short amount of time
Signs and symptoms of Circulatory Overload?
Chest pain, cough, frothy sputum, distended neck veins, crackles and wheezes