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A condition in which there is a deficiency of RBC or hemoglobin or both
SOB, fatigue and weakness
Causes of Anemia:
- 1. impaired production of RBC
- 2. increased destruction of RBC
- 3. massive or chronic blood loss
Signs and Symptoms of anemia?
pallor, tachycardia, tachypnea, irritability, fatigue, and SOB
Diagnostic Tests for Anemia?
CBC -- RBC, WBC, hemoglobin and hematocrit and iron levels
Iron supplements should be taking in conjunction with what to enhance absorption?
type of anemia in which the bone marrow becomes fatty and incapable of producing the needed numbers of RBC
what is a result in aplastic anemia
pancytopenia == a decreased number of all formed elements
The most definitive diagnostic test for aplastic anemia
bone marrow biopsy == because bone marrow is essentially dead == pale, fatty, yellow fibrous tissue not red, gelatinous tissue
stimulates the production of RBC
stimulates the production of WBC
Sickle cell anemia is inherited ? T/F
What can cause a sickle cell crisis?
hypoxia or dehydration
Clinical manifestations of Sickle cell anemia?
- Stasis ulcers
- Heart Failure
- Hand and foot syndrome
Signs and symptoms of Sickle Cell
- Pain and swelling in joints (elbows and knees)
- abdominal pain
Therapeutic Interventions for Sickle Cell
- IV and oral fluids
- Blood transfusion
Patient Education for Patient with Sickle Cell
- prevention of acute episodes
- avoid strenuous exercise
- no flying or mountain climbing
- changes in the RBC cell count
- the blood becomes so thick with and overabundance of RBC
Therapeutic Measures for Polycythemia?
- therapeutic phlebotomy -- withdrawal of blood
- first every other day, then every 2-3 months
Disseminated Intravascular coagulation
in a short period all of the clotting factors are exhausted and clots can no longer be formed === results in bleeding from everywhere
Signs and symptoms of DIC?
Early == petechiae, ecchymoses, bleeding at venipuncture site
Diagnostic tests for DIC?
PT and PTT == prolonged
Therapeutic Measures for DIC?
Administration of Vit K, Fresh frozen plasma, platelets, cryoprecipitate
Hemophilia occurs in what type of patients?
What is Hemophilia?
a group of heredity disorders that result from a severe lack of specific clotting factors
Signs and Symptoms of hemophilia?
- bleeding into muscles and joints
- Severe bleeding episodes can cause joint deformities
A malignant disease of the WBC that affects all age groups ...
In Leukemia what happens to the immature WBC?
the generate in an explosive fashion
What is a complication of Leukemia?
Anemia -- because too many WBC are being produced and not enough RBC are being produced
What is complication of having few mature WBC in leukemia
Risk for infection, to few mature WBC to fight off infection
Therapeutic Measure for Leukemia?
Some Nursing interventions for patients undergoing chemotherapy?
- Keep away from large crowds
- No raw vegetables/ fruit or flowers
- hand washing
A deadly cancer of the plasma cells in the bone marrow?
Complications of multiple myeloma?
Signs and symptoms of Multiple Myeloma?
- Skeletal pain
How do you treat Hypercalcemia in patients
What are patients with multiple myeloma at risk for?
Risk for injury/falls
Cancer of the lymph system, determined by the presence of Reed Sternberg Cells
Sign of Hodgkin's disease?
Swollen/painful lymph nodes == biopsy shows presence of reed sternbergs cells
First priority for a patient with Hodgkins disease?
What should patients with Hodgkins disease stay away of and why?
Alcohol because it can induce pain
- Presence of Painless, swollen lymph nodes
- absence of Reed Sternberg Cells
removal of spleen
What is ordered preoperatively for a splenectomy?
Vit K to correct clotting factor deficiencies
Complications from a Splenectomy?
Respiratory problems == spleen is under diaphragm ----> pneumonia and atelectasis
infections ---> spleen has a role in the immune response