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Models of Learning (3)
- Association Learning
- Observational Learning
- Cognitive Learning
Classical Conditioning - starts w/ natural occuring stimulus & reponse.
Operant Conditioning - No naturally occuring S&R
Classical Conditioning - Description & History
- -Starts w/ naturally occuring S&R
- -Work of Ivan Pavlov, originally studying digestion
- -Pairing w/ another stimulus. ie. Dog salivating at sound of a bell.
Classical Conditioning - Learning Principles & Applications
- Learning Principles:
- Generalization- Reaction to similarities
- Discrimination- Differential reinforcement, organism learns to discriminate correct conditioned stimulus.
- Research w/ phobias
Task Situations, human interaction situations, certain jobs.
Shaping behavior: Complex behaviors are learned by reinforcing successive approximations (parts) of the total behavior.
Not naturally occuring.
Operant Conditioning - Which is better for maintaining high levels of performance? Partial or Continuious
- Early stages of learning = continuous.
- Maintaining high performance = partial
ie. Praise... works well, but not when used all the time.
Non-contingent Reinforcement (Random Reinforcement)
Everyday life, S&R associations are made b/c certain behaviors are randomly reinforced.
Process: When reinforcement occurs, the subject decides which response that is associated w/ the stimulus.
Examples: Basket ball players bouncing ball before free throw. BF Skinner's experiment w/ pigeon & light. (the action is associated w/ good result.)
- Why it works:
- -Self efficacy we need to feel competent in dealing w/ our environment
- -Self reinforcement.
Applications: Informal training programs (watch videos)
Wolfgang Kohler during WWI kohler studied great apes on the island of Tenerife.
- Stick problems: put sticks together to get bannanas.
- Box Problems: used boxes to grab bannanas out of reach.
- Insight- Suddent perception of the relationships among the elements of a problem situation.
- Perception- Interpretation of the world around us.
Reinforcement vs. Punishment
- Positive Reinforcement: Strengthens behavior
- Negative Reinforcement: Strengthen behavior to avoid.
- Punishment: Weakens, or eliminated behavior/repsonse.
Schedules of Reinforcement
- 1.)Interval: Time elapsed.
- Fixed: hourly or weekly pay rates
- -Mediocre performance
- -Little resistance to extinction.
- Variable: Periodic bonuses or inspections
- -High but unstable performance
- -Somewhat resistant to extinction.
- 2.)Ratio: the number of responses
- Fixed: fixed amount of production
- -Fairly high and stable performance
- -Little resistance to extinction.
- Variable: Rewards tied to variable output, slot-machines
- -Very high levels of performance
- -very resistant to extinction (think partial reinforcement)
OB MOD programs Description
Attempt to improved performance or attendance through the systematic positive reinforcement of desirable behaviors.
Examples: Points given for being accident free, drawing for employees w/ perfect attendence.
OB MOD Programs - Controversies
- Described as manipulative.
- Not an original Technique (scientific mgmt uses same principles)
- some OB Mod programs do not faithfully follow operant principles.
- Ignores internally mediated rewards.
- Lack of awareness of mental processes.
OB Mod programs - Limitations
Limited to simple, observable behaviors.
Risks of using punishment
Employee may seek other ways of engaging in the behavior, only temporarily suppress the behavior, have a negative response and try to get even.
Alternatives to Punishment
- Rearrange: change work so that the undesired behavior doesn't occur
- Extinguish: removing the rewards for engaging in the behavior.
Note: does not mean that punishment shouldn't be used, just that one should weigh the risks and use other methods when they are too high.
Guidelines for administering discipline.
- Supervisor's Style
- Employees' backgrounds
- Size of organization
- Type of work being performed.
Conducting a disciplinary meeting
- 1. Have a private meeting w/ offender
- 2. Don't lose your cool
- 3. Be certain of your facts.
- 4. Select an appropriate punishment.
- 5. Accomplish three objectives:
- -State what is wrong
- -State what you expect
- -State what happens when failure occurs.
- 6.Keep records.
Conducting a termination meeting
- 1. Immediate supervisor should conduct the meeting
- 2. Reasons for the discharge should be laid out.
- 3. Matter shouldn't be discussed w/ other employees
- 4. Finality of the decision should be conveyed.
Incremental, and influence technique.
"The cause of why behind behavior"
Manipulative, coercive techniques
Modivation: Why common definition doesn't work
"Why did the person do what he/she did"
- Too broad, encompassing all behaviors, therefore, unusable.
- Psychological Definition: "process that accounts for an individual's intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal."
Elements of the psychological definition of Motivation
- Intensity: Amount of energy
- Direction: Toward some goal
- Persistence: measure of how long the person will maintain his/her efforts
Historical Conceptions of Human Motivation
- Pawn of Fate: Passive instruments of external/supernatural forces
- Rational Master: Rational beings whos intellects are free to choose.
- Social Product: Motives are learned & are products of our experiences.
- Unconscious Being: People unaware of the real reasons for much of their behavior.
- The Animal: Motivation arises from internal (biological) factors over which we have little control
Pawn of Fate
- Humans are passive instruments of external, often supernatural forces.
- Doesn't work b/c it takes away free will and negates any other source of motivation.
- Moderate sense that external forces can influence the internal state.
- Extreme form states behavior is controlled entirely by external factors.
- Humans are rational being whose intellects are free to choose.
- Extreme form says one need only study the rules of logic in order to predict human behavior.
- Doesn't work b/c there are many non-rational aspects of human behavior.
- Moderate sense, some rational aspects to our system of motivation.
- ie. Stopping at a red light, forms of murder.
- Motives are learned and are the product of our experience.
- Extreme form, learning is the total source of motivation. Tabula rasa = blank slate.
- Cultural relativism (mead) "no universal traits" we aren't born w/ any traist that make us human since everything is learned.
- Political orthodoxy: Those who oppose this view have been shunned by certain political elements of society and segments of the scientific community.
- Moderate sense, learning must be considered a part of our motivational system and some motives have more of a learned aspect than others.
Social Product - Contrary Evidence
Longitudinal Study: long-term follow up of infants over 20yrs. Found that basic temperament differences, such as activity level, general mood, and adaptability to the environment, persisted over the period of the study.
Minnesota Center for Twin & Adoption Research: Often remarkable findings over many years demonstrate the importance of inherited factors.
The Unconscious Being
- People are often unaware of the real reasonf for much of their behavior.
- Extreme form, almost all motivation is unconscious.
- Freudian Model: Iceberg analogy, only the tip is out of the water.
- - Instincts = these have to be met.
- - Societal sanctions = society prevents open expression.
- - Hydraulic nature of model = Pressure placed in one part of the system must come out somewhere else.
- Moderate form, subconscious may be part of the system of motivation.
- A. Post-hypnotic suggestion experiments
- B. Neo-dissociation(hidden observer) some part of use sees everything, but doesn't make it available to open consciousness.
Dissociation (Unconscious Being)
The mind can be separated into two distinct paths.
Anesthetic Effects (Unconscious Being)
Hypnosis can have anesthetic effects.
Area for speech in the left hemisphere.
Split Brain Experiments (Unconscious Being)
Word "nut" flashed on left side of screen = can find it, but can't tell you what he saw.
"Hatband" flashed, hat on left, band on right = can only say "band"
Blindfolded, familiar object placed in left hand = can't tell you what it is.
Shown several words then asked to write = can write out on left hand, but can't say it.
Conscious Mind - dominate functions: logic, math, language, writing.
Unconscious Mind - Dominant functions: spatial abilities, music, visual imagery (art), fantasy, coordination skills.
- Motivation arises from internal (biological) factors over which we have little control.
- Extreme form, motivation is biological in origin.
- Moderate Sense, we are biological creatures and biology is an important source of human motivation.
- Primary, secondary, and higher order drives.
Hedonism (The Animal)
- "We seek pleasure to avoid pain"
- Future hedonism & psychological pain account for everything.
- We do everything, for future pleasure.
- Problem: became too broad, therefore, unusable.
Human being evolved from lower animals. This opened the door for such concepts as instincts to be applied to human beings.
William McDougal (The Animal)
- Social Psychology (1908) proposed instincts
- Flight, Repulsion, curiosity, pugnacity (feisty), gregariousness (social/outgoing)
- Problems w/ instincts:
- Circular in reasoning (doesn't really explain)
- Became too many of them (6k proposed)
- Often after-the-fact explanations.
- Not testable (couldn't verify or refute them)
Adam's Equity Theory
Strive to restore equity
Pay tied to performance: Individually based bonus systems (led to competition, socially ostracized.
Classical vs. Operative Stimuli
- Classical = unconditioned stimulus
- Operative = discriminate stimulus.
Appropriately Rewarded leads to connection between satisfaction and productivity
Response Rate drop off
Random (ie. superstitions)
Blank slate, learning is everything
Two types of reinforcement
- Interval: Time elapse
- Ratio: Number of responses.
Best Performance type of reinforcement
Hidden observer, sees everything but doesn't always make everything available to conscious mind.
Motivation comes from subconsciousness
Push things out of conscious awareness. Society sanctions push other actions
Theory X vs. Theory Y
- Theory X: People don't like to work
- Theory Y: People do like to work.
Opposite of dissatisfaction = No dissatisfaction.
What replaces instincts?
Ultimately related to physiological needs for food, water, oxygen, sex, and avoidance of pain.
Prediction Method - Self-regulating processes (thermostat) was postulated as being necessary in order to drive behaviors that would keep the organism alive and functioning well.
Contrary Evidence to The Animal as a motivator
- Incentives (external stimuli which influence the internal state) were being ignored.
- They didn't always function well.
- Discovery of psychological motives.
Moderate Sense of The Animal
We are biological creatures and biology is an important source of human motivation.
Motivation is a _________ technique, not a ______ technique.
Influence not a manipulation
When is organizational motivation effective?
When there is a simultaneous achievement of both organizational and individual needs.
- Growth Needs: 1. Self Actualization
- 2. Self-esteem
- Deficiency Needs: 3. Love & belonging
- 4. Safety & Security
- 5. Physiological Needs
Assumptions of Maslow's Hierarchy
- Unless employees get their needs met,they will probably not perform well on the job.
- Needs lower in the hierarchy must be met first
- Once a need is satisfied it is no longer motivating. (Prepotency)
Cross-Cultural studies involving Maslow's
Hierarchy principle is present in other cultures, but the order may not be exactly the same.
- Hygiene Factors (Dissatisfactors): pertain to the job context creat only a neutral feeling toward job when modified.
- Motivators (Satisfiers): pertain more to job content. Are more likely to cause people to be motivated towards higher performance.
Comparison of Herzberg & Maslow's
- Satisfiers: Nature of work itself, Growth, Achievement. (fit w/ "Self Actualization")
- Advancement, Recognition (fit w/ "Esteem Needs")
- Dissastisfiers: Supervision, Interpersonal Relations, Status (fit w/ "Social Needs")
- Job security, Work conditions (fit w/ "Saftey & Security)
- Salary, Personal Life (fit w/ Physiological needs)
- (E-P)x(P-O) x V = Motivational Force
- Effort -> (Good Performance) -> Desired Outcomes.
Critical Determinants of Performance
- Ability: Knowledge, skills, aptitude
- Motivation: Willingness to exert effort
- Opportunity: Underestimated. Given opportunities to aquire and display competence and effectiveness.
Are negative incentives Motivating?
Only use negative incentives leads people to do the minimums.
Why isn't individually based bonus plans used exclusively?
- Social ostracism of superior performers.
- Falsification of performance Reports
- Cooperation among employees decrease.
- Employee acceptance is low.
Generally, more specific goals are ....
Positively related to performance.
Generally, more challenging goals result in
higher performance, but must be feasible.
Goals linked to employee aspirations lead to...
more commitment from employees
Steps in MBO
- Supervisor and Subordinate meet and set goals that are:
- Mutually agreed on
- Measurable w/ a deadline
- Performance is measured
Problems with MBO
- Lack of support by top-level executives
- Some managers do not want subordinates to participate.
- Personality conflicts between supervisors & subs
- MBO emphasizes quantifiable goals, not quality.
Despite problems w/ MBO
Track record of MBO has been good, need not be used continually.
- Self Directed Work Teams
- Group of highly trained employees that is fully responsible for creating a product.
Elements & Consequences of SDWTs
- Elements: Mandatory Job Rotation
- Skill based pay systems
- Higher Requirement for training
- Consequences: Elimination of some supervisory positions
- Organization is flatter
- Sizeable investment in training.
Sources of Satisfaction
- Job Level: Higher among higher lvl employees
- Length of Service: Longer service = more satisfaction
- Race: Blacks tend to report less satisfaction
- Organization Size: Smaller orgs = more satisfaction
- Dispositional Influences: some people prone to dissatisfaction
- Expectations: job satisfaction is often related to expectation, not reality.
Consequences of job dissatisfaction
- Early Retirement
- Union Organizing